ألبرت فورستر

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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البرت فورستر
حاكم مدينة دانزيج
في المنصب
23 اغسطس – 1 سبتمبر 1939
سبقه ارثر جريسر
خلفه تم ضم المدينة الي الرايخ الثالث
ممثل الحزب النازي والرايخ الثالث في بروسيا الشرقية ودانزيج
في المنصب
1935 – 1945
الرئيس ادولف هتلر
سبقه منصب مستحدث
خلفه تم الغاء المنصب
المعلومات الشخصية
مسقط رأس فوريش, علم الإمبراطورية الألمانية الإمبراطورية الألمانية
الوفاة 28 فبراير 1952 (49 عاما)
وارسو, علم بولندا بولندا
الحزب السياسي الحزب النازي

البرت ماريا فورستر (26 يوليو, 1902 - 28 فبراير, 1952) سياسي نازي وأحد أعضاء الحزب النازي. أرسله هتلر عام 1930 الي مدينة دانزيج البولندية لتأسيس الحزب النازي هناك واستطاع أن يصبح حاكماً للمدينة وبعدها أعلن رسمياً عن ضم المدينة إلى الرايخ الثالث. شارك في الحرب العالمية الثانية تحت قيادة هتلر وأُتهم بارتكاب جرائم حرب في بولندا وتم الحكم عليه بالإعدام بعد هزيمة ألمانيا في الحرب.

حياته[عدل]

ولد فورستر في فورث التابعة للإمبراطورية الألمانية عام 1902. وفي عام 1923 أصبح عضوا في خية هتلر التي انشأئها عقب هزيمة ألمانيا في الحرب العالمية الأولي وتم القبض عليه هو وهتلر وايريك لددروف وثمانية آخرين وقُدِّموا للمحاكمة التي امتدت ما بين 1 فبراير إلى 26 أبريل 1924، في محكمة ميونخ.

مدينة دانزيج المستقلة[عدل]

في عام 1930 وفد ادولف هتلر فورستر إلى مدينة دانزيج من اجل نشر الفكر النازي هناك وإنشاء مقر للحزب. وعمل فورستر بقوة علي نشر علي الفكر وفي الفترة بين عامي 1933-1939 دخل في صراع مع عضو مجلس الشيوخ لمدينة دانزيج ارثر جريسير والذي ناصبه العداء حتي مماته. وقبل بدء الحرب العالمية الثانية

Before World War II Forster had tried and failed to gain control over the organisation of the irredentist activities of the minority ethnic German population in the Polish Corridor, neighboring Freie Stadt Danzig, which was created in 1920 by Treaty of Versailles), rather it was the SS-dominated Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle that won control. With Forster and Himmler engaged in a power struggle, this rendered the (ethnic) Germans concerned suspicious of Forster. When these territories were annexed after the Invasion of Poland and they became Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia, Forster's distrust of the local Nazi leaders led him to deny them political power and he filled all the significant positions with people from the pre-war Free City of Danzig. The result was, inevitably, great bitterness amongst the local Germans, which Forster's Germanization policies, which denied them higher status than that of the Poles,[1] naturally exacerbated.

In May 1934 Forster, who had been made Honorable Citizen of Fürth and of Danzig, married Gertrud Deetz. The wedding took place in the Berlin Chancellory, with Hitler and Rudolf Heß as witnesses and wedding guests.

In 1939, following orders from Berlin, Forster led the agitation in Danzig to step up pressure for annexation by Nazi Germany and proclaimed that in future "Poland will be only a dream".[2] The Danzig issue was one of the pretexts used for the Nazi invasion of Poland in 1939. He was hateful of Jews whom he called "dirty and slippery race" and he expressed his desire to control parts of Poland after Poles would be expelled from them.[3]

الحرب العالمية الثانية[عدل]

Following Poland's defeat, Greiser became Gauleiter in the Warthegau, which became part of Germany after 1939. Forster became the Gauleiter and Reichstatthalter (governor) of the province Danzig-West Prussia from 1939–1945, thereby concentrating both the State and Nazi Party power in his hands. Adolf Hitler instructed the Gauleiters, namely Forster and his rival Arthur Greiser, in the Warthegau to Germanize the area, promising that "There would be no questions asked" about how this "Germanization" was to be accomplished.[4] Forster goal was to make the area fully Germanised within ten years[5]

ارتكابه لجرائم حرب[عدل]

Forster was responsible for ethnic cleansing of Poles to the General Government, as well as sending them to the Stutthof concentration camp. He was also one of those responsible for Mass murders in Piaśnica, where approximately 12,000 Poles and Kashub intelligentsia were killed in 1939-1940. At Forster's disposal in early Nazi occupation of Polish territories were 17.667 members of the paramilitary Selbstschutz, Danzig police units (including Einsatzkommando 16), and a special SD unit[6] Forster announced that West Prussia would become a "blossoming, pure German" province and all Poles will be driven off.[7]

Forster personally encouraged pogroms and violence; in a speech at the Prusinski Hotel in Wejherowo he agitated ethnic Germans to attack Poles by saying "We have to eliminate the lice ridden Poles, starting with those in the cradle… in your hands I give the fate of the Poles, you can do with them what you want". The crowd gathered before the hotel chanted "Kill the Polish dogs!" and "Death to the Poles".[8] The Selbstschutz participated in the early massacres as Piaśnica, and many of their members later joined police and SS formations which continued the massacres until the Fall of 1940.[8]

The total number of victims of what Christopher Browning calls "orgy of murder and deportation" cannot be estimated with precision, Nazi reports from early occupation speak of about 20,000 Poles "destroyed", while additionally Forster reported that 87.000 people had been "evacuated" from the region by February 1940 alone.[9]

It is estimated that till the end of the war up to 60.000 people had been murdered in the region[10] and up to 170.000 ethnically cleansed.[11]

دوره في مذابح اليهود[عدل]

Forster at the outbreak of the war declared that "Jews are not humans, and must be eradicated like vermin...mercy towards Jews is reprehensible. Any means of destruction of Jews is desirable.[12] Jews were being arrested, executed and murdered as well as deported to General Government. By November 1939 Danzig-West Prussia was declared "Judenfrei"[13] It is estimated that up to 30.000 Jews from Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany in Pomerania and attached to Danzig-West Prussia were mass murdered during the war.[14]

دوره في السياسية الألمانية[عدل]

Forster put remaining Poles between alternative-become Germanised or become slaves.[15]

Forster pursued a policy of forced assimilation of the population in his area of responsibility.[16] Forster was willing to accept any and all Poles who claimed to have "German blood" as Germans.[16] In practice, the method of determining whether Poles had any German ancestry or not was to send out Nazi Party workers to interview the local Poles; all Poles who stated that they had German ancestry had their answers taken at face value with no documentation required.[17] SS Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, appointed by Hitler as "Reich Commissioner for the Strengthening of Germandom" and, as such, the man assigned to decide the "Germanization" policy in German-occupied territories, took the opposite view.[18] Refusal to become Germanised was punishable by deportation to General Government or imprisonment in concentration camp.[19]

Forster was at odds with Arthur Greiser who had complained to Himmler that Forster's assimilation policy was against Nazi racial theory. When Himmler approached Forster over this issue, Forster simply ignored him, realizing that Hitler allowed each Gauleiter to run his area as he saw fit. Both Greiser and Himmler complained to Hitler that Forster was allowing thousands of Poles to be classified as Germans, but Hitler merely bounced the problem back to them, telling them to go sort out their problems with Forster on their own. This was a difficult task. Himmler's attempts to cajole Forster to see matters his way met with resentment and contempt. In a discussion with Richard Hildebrandt, HSSPF Vistula, over Germanization in his Reichsgau, Forster scoffed, "if I looked like Himmler, I wouldn't talk about race".

معارضته لقوات النخبة الألمانية[عدل]

Forster's conflict with the SS also had direct and injurious consequences for ethnic Germans. During the war, hundreds of thousands of ethnic-Germans were moved by Nazi-Soviet agreement from Soviet Union into Poland and used as colonists in Nazi occupied Poland. While Greiser did all he could to accommodate them in his Reichsgau, Forster viewed them with hostility, claiming that his region needed young farmers while the refugees were old and urbanized. He initially refused to admit any of them into his Reichsgau. When a ship bearing several thousands of ethnic Germans from the Baltic states arrived at Danzig he initially refused them entry unless Himmler promised that they would not be settled in Danzig-West Prussia but proceed immediately elsewhere, an assurance that Himmler could not provide. It was only following a lengthy telephone consultation with the desperate Himmler that Forster allowed the passengers to disembark on the understanding that their residence in the Reichsgau would be temporary, though most did not, ultimately, leave the region. In time he had to relent and by June 1944 53,258 colonists had settled in Danzig-West Prussia, a far cry from the 421,780 settled in the Warthegau. Forster's Germanization policies left less free land and housing than Greiser's mass expulsions, although it is evident that Forster's perception of the ethnic German refugees as wards of the SS played its role in determining his attitude.

وفاته[عدل]

في نهاية الحرب لجأ فورستر إلى المناطق الألمانية الخاطعة للاحتلال البريطاني وسلمه البريطانيون إلى بولندا الشيوعية, وحكمت علية المحكمة البولندية بالإعدام لارتكابه جرائم حرب وجرائم ضد الإنسانية عام 1948. أُحتجز فورستر وتم تأجيل عقوبته ثمّ نُقل من سجن دانزيج. أُعدم فورستر في 28 فبراير 1952 في سجن موكتو في وارسو, وأٌعلمت زوجته -التي لم يتواصل معها منذ 1949 - بوفاته عام 1954.

المراجع[عدل]

  • Rees, Laurence The Nazis: A Warning From History, foreword by Sir Ian Kershaw, New York: New Press, 1997 ISBN 1-56584-551-X
  • Levine, S. Herbert Local Authority and the SS State: The Conflict Over Population Policy in Danzig-West Prussia, 1939-1945 - Central European History (1973)

المصادر[عدل]

  1. ^ The Nazis: A warning from history::The Wild East
  2. ^ LIFE Magazine 21 August 1939
  3. ^ Blitzkrieg w Polsce wrzesien 1939 Richard Hargreaves page 93
  4. ^ Rees, Laurence The Nazis: A Warning From History, New York: New Press, 1997 pages 141
  5. ^ Dieter Schenk: Albert Forster. Gdański namiestnik Hitlera. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Oskar, 2002, page 251. ISBN 83-86181-83-4.
  6. ^ The Origins of the Final Solution The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 Christopher R. Browning University of Nebraska Press page 31
  7. ^ Browning page 31
  8. ^ أ ب Elżbieta Grot, "Ludobójstwo w Piaśnicy z uwzględnieniem losów mieszkańców powiatu wejherowskiego." (Genocide in Piaśnica with a discussion of the fate of the inhabitants of Wejherow county", Public Library of Wejherowo,[1]
  9. ^ Browning page 33
  10. ^ Paweł Kosiński, Barbara Polak: Nie zamierzam podejmować żadnej polemiki – wywiad z prof. Witoldem Kuleszą. Biuletyn IPN nr 12-1 (35-36), grudzień-styczeń 2003-2004, pages 4-23.
  11. ^ Bogdan Chrzanowski: Wypędzenia z Pomorza. Biuletyn IPN nr 5/2004, maj 2004
  12. ^ Aleksandra Namysło [red.]: Zagłada Żydów na polskich terenach wcielonych do Rzeszy. Warszawa: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, 2008, page 117. ISBN 978-83-60464-66-3
  13. ^ Dieter Schenk: Albert Forster. Gdański namiestnik Hitlera. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Oskar, 2002, page 312 ISBN 83-86181-83-4.
  14. ^ Aleksandra Namysło [red.]: Zagłada Żydów na polskich terenach wcielonych do Rzeszy. op.cit., page 135
  15. ^ Polityka III Rzeszy w okupowanej Polsce: okupacja Polski, 1939-1945Czesław Madajczyk 1970
  16. ^ أ ب Rees, Laurence The Nazis: A Warning From History, New York: New Press, 1997 pages 141-142
  17. ^ Rees, Laurence The Nazis: A Warning From History, New York: New Press, 1997 pages 142
  18. ^ Rees, Laurence The Nazis: A Warning From History, New York: New Press, 1997 pages 145-147
  19. ^ Piotr Semków: Pobór Polaków z Pomorza do Wehrmachtu. Biuletyn IPN nr 8 – 9 (67 – 68), Sierpień–Wrzesień 2006