تلال ماتوبو

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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إحداثيات: 22°2′S 29°36′E / 22.033°S 29.600°E / -22.033; 29.600

تلال ماتوبو
World Heritage Logo.svg موقع اليونيسكو للتراث العالمي
صورة معبرة عن الموضوع تلال ماتوبو
شروق الشمس في تلال ماتوبو

الدولة علم زيمبابوي زيمبابوي
النوع ثقافي
المعايير iii, v, vi
رقم التعريف 306
المنطقة أفريقيا **
تاريخ الاعتماد
السنة 2003
(الاجتماع السابع والعشرون للجنة التراث العالمي)
ملحق http://whc.unesco.org/ar/list/306#

* اسم الموقع كما هو مدون بقائمة مواقع التراث العالمي
** تقسييم اليونسكو لمناطق العالم

يشكّل منتزه ماتوبو الوطني قلب وأساس تلال ماتوبو، وهي أودية من صخور الجرانيت وغابات تبدأ من مسافة 35 كيلومتر جنوب مدينة بُلاوايو جنوبي زيمبابوي. تشكّلت هذه التلال منذ ما يزيد عن مليوني سنة، وذلك ببروز الجرانيت إلى السطح، وتشكّل القمم الصخرية الجرداء المشققة، تتناثر فيها الصخور وتتخللها الغابات. هذا وقد كان الملك الجنوب أفريقي "موسيليكازي" أعطى المنطقة أسمها، والذي يعني "الرؤوس الصلعاء".

تغطي التلال مساحة حوالي 3000 كم ²، منها 424 كم ² للمنتزه الوطني ، و يكون الباقي كلا من الأراضي المشاعة إلى حد كبير ونسبة صغيرة من المزارع التجارية. خصص جزء من المنتزه الوطني جانبا بمساحة 100 كم ² كحديقة لصيد الطرائد ، والتي تم تجهيزها بالطرائد بما في ذلك وحيد القرن الأبيض.

يمتد المنتزه على طول وديان ثولي، متشالي، ماليم ونهر مبوبوما. يمثل الرعن الذي يحمل اسم غولاتي أعلى نقطة في التلال ويصل ارتفاعه إلى (1549 م) و يوجد خارج الركن الشمالي الشرقي من منتزه ماتوبو الوطني.

إداريا، يتضمن منتزه ماتوبو الوطني حديقة بحيرة ماتوبوس الترفيهية، كونه المنطقة المحيطة بهازل سايد و ساندي سبرويت وبحيرة ماتوبوس .

تاريخ المنتزه[عدل]

يعتبر منتزه ماتوبو الوطني الأقدم في زيمبابوي، إذ أُنشئ عام 1926[1] بإيعاز من سيسل رودس، وكان اسمه حينها "منتزه رودس ماتوبوس الوطني". كانت حدود المنتزه أنذاك تمتد إلى أبعد مما هي عليه الآن جنوباً وشرقاً, إلا أن تلك المناطق أقتطعت وضُمت إلى إحدى المستعمرات، وذلك بناءً على اتفاق تسوية بين السلطات الاستعمارية والسكان المحليين[2]. أما الاسم الحالي "ماتوبو" فيعكس اللفظ الصحيح حسب سكان المنطقة.

رشحت تلال ماتوبو عام 2003، لتكون إحدى مواقع التراث العالمي من قبل منظمة اليونسكو.تتضمن المنطقة تشكيلات رائعة ونادرة من الصخور التي ترتقي فوق الحاجز الجرانيتي الذي يغطي معظم مساحة زيمبابوي[3].

الخصائص[عدل]

أنثى وحيد القرن الأبيض مع صغيرها في منتزه ماتوبو الوطني

الغطاء النباتي[عدل]

تلال ماتوبو هو مجال عالي من التنوع النباتي ، يتوفر على أكثر من 200 نوع من الأشجار المسجلة في الحديقة الوطنية، بما في ذلك شجر السنط الجبلي والكمثرى البرية و شجرالقيقب .[4] هناك أيضا العديد من أنواع الصَبِر، والأعشاب البرية التي يفوق عدد أنواعها 100 صنف .[5]

الحيوانات[عدل]

يتميز المنتزه الوطني في ماتوبو بتنوع واسع من الحيوانات : 175 bird, 88 mammal, 39 snake and 16 fish species.[5] Game include white Rhinoceros, sable antelope, impala and leopard. The park contains the world's densest population of the latter,[6] due to the abundance of hyrax, which make up 50% of their diet.[4] The game park in the west has been restocked with white and black rhinos, the former from Kwa-Zulu Natal in the 1960s and the latter from the Zambezi Valley in the 1990s. It has been designated as an Intensive Protection Zone for the two species,[7] as well as giraffe, zebra, wildebeest and ostrich.[8] يحتوي منتزه ماتوبو الوطني على أعلى نسبة من النسور السوداء، و تربية أزواج هذه الطيور في جميع أنحاء العالم..[9][10]

Mother and Child Kopje in the game park, Matobo National Park

A limnological research centre has operated since 1950 at Maleme Dam[11] and researched species such as the yellow-fish Barbus mattozi.[12]

الجغرافيا والجيولوجيا[عدل]

تتألف تلال الماتوبو تماما من الجرانيت, making up the Matopos Batholith.[13][14] The granite weathers into fantastic shapes, such as the balancing rocks known as Mother and Child Kopje. Between the granite mountains, narrow valleys form. These are often swampy valleys known as dambos or vleis, due to runoff from the whaleback mountains.[4] These valleys form the headwaters of the Maleme, Mpopoma and Mtsheleli rivers, and the source of the Thuli River is just east of the park.

Archaeological, historical and cultural Sites[عدل]

Mt Effefe ca. 1900.

San (Bushmen) lived in the hills about 2,000 years ago, leaving a rich heritage in hundreds of rock paintings. There are over 3,000 registered rock art sites,[4] with the main periods of painting being between 320 and 500 C.E.. In the many crevices and caves, clay ovens and other historic artefacts have been found,[10] and various archaeological finds date back as far as the Pre-Middle Stone Age, around 300,000 B.P.[15][16] The following major sites have been developed for tourist access:

Bambata Cave is also a major archaeological site,[17] located in the west of the national park, north of the game park on the Kezi-Bulawayo road. The frieze includes elephants, giraffes, warthogs, tsessebe and mongoose.[18]

Inanke Cave has the most extensive paintings, located in a remote cave accessible by a three-hour hike from Toghwana Dam. Along the route of the hike is an iron age furnace.[17]

Nswatugi Cave contains beautiful friezes of giraffes, elephants and kudu.[17][18] Access is from Circular Drive, west of Maleme Dam

Pomongwe Cave, near Maleme Dam, was damaged by a preservation attempt in 1965, where linseed oil was applied to the paintings.[19] Archaeological digs within and downslop of the cave revealed 39,032 stone tools, several hearths, with the main fire-making areas were in the centre of the cave floor. Bone fragments showed that hyrax formed a major part of the meat component of the diet of early human inhabitants of the cave, which also included tortoise and larger game animals. The oldest material on the site is probably pre-Middle Stone Age.[15][20]

White Rhino Shelter is a small site near Gordon Park, on the main tarred road through the park. The frieze includes the outline of a large rhinos, which is said to have inspired the re-introduction of the species in the 1960s.[21]

The grandeur and stillness of the hills has contributed to their hallowed reputation, especially to the Shona and Ndebele people. Many rituals and other religious activities are performed in the hills. Before the colonial era, it was the headquarters of the spiritualist oracle, the Mlimo.

Cecil Rhodes tomb on Malindidzimu

The hills were the scene of the famous indaba between white settlers and Ndebele leaders in 1896—the Second Matabele War, known in Zimbabwe as the First Chimurenga—which ended with the assassination of the Mlimo by Frederick Russell Burnham, the American scout, in one of the Matobo caves.[22] Upon learning of the death of the Mlimo, Cecil Rhodes boldly walked alone and unarmed into this Ndebele stronghold and persuaded the impi to lay down their arms.[23] During the indaba it was also in these hills that Robert Baden-Powell, the Founder of Scouting, first learned woodcraft, the fundamentals of scouting, from Burnham.[24][25] Even today, a great deal of the pottery and artefacts found on cave floors and most of the clay grain bins in the hills are remnants from the 1896 rebellion era. There are other reminders too - bronze plaques dotted here and there in various hills mark the sites of armed forts or brief skirmishes.

Cecil Rhodes, Leander Starr Jameson, and several other leading early white settlers, including Allan Wilson and all the members of the Shangani Patrol killed in the First Matabele War, are buried on the summit of Malindidzimu, the 'hill of the spirits' -- this is a great source of controversy in modern Zimbabwe as this is considered a sacred place by nationalists and indigenous groups.[26][27] This mount is also referred to as the World’s View. (Not to be confused with the World's View, Nyanga).

الإقامة والتخييم[عدل]

Black Eagle and Fish Eagle Lodges at Maleme Rest Camp.

مخيم ماليم[عدل]

هذا هو المعسكر الرئيسي في وسط المنتزه ،وهو يحتضن مقر المنتزه . جميع أماكن الإقامة ذات ضيافة ذاتية. يوجد في المخيم ثمانية عشر نزلا وستة شاليهات ، the former fully equipped and the latter with communal ablutions and without crockery or cutlery. Three of the lodges, Imbila, Black Eagle and Fish Eagle, have fantastic views over the Maleme Gorge. Imbila Lodge offers a higher standard of luxury with ensuite bathrooms and teak furniture.[21] Camping and caravan sites are situated along the eastern shores of Maleme Dam.

مخيم متشيليلي[عدل]

يقع في الجنوب, يقدم هذا المخيم خدمات التخييم ومواقع القوافل.

Camping sites at Maleme.

مخيم مويسيلومي[عدل]

موجود على القرص الدائري، غرب سد ماليم ، يقدم هذا المخيم خدمات التخييم ومواقع القوافل.

Toghwana Camp[عدل]

Located in the east, يقدم هذا المخيم خدمات التخييم ومواقع القوافل..

Arboretum Camp[عدل]

Located in the west of Lake Matopos Recreational Park, near the Hazelside Office, يقدم هذا المخيم خدمات التخييم ومواقع القوافل.

Sandy Spruit Camp[عدل]

Located in the east of Lake Matopos Recreational Park, this camp offers campings and caravan sites.

Lake Matopos Camp[عدل]

Located in the north of Lake Matopos Recreational Park, this camp offers campings and caravan sites.

Gordon Park Scout Camp.

Privately operated camps and sites[عدل]

The Boy Scouts Association of Zimbabwe operates a camp called Gordon Park, in the north of the Mtsheleli Valley. Gordon Park is a 115 ha lease from the Parks and Wildlife Management Authority and is maintained as far as possible close to natural conditions. In addition to camping sites for Scout Troops there is a small cottage.[28] The Girl Guides Association of Zimbabwe maintains a camp site at Rowallan Park, in the north of the Mtsheleli Valley.

Big Cave Camp is a privately owned camp, bordering the Matobo National Park. The Camp offers four star accommodation in seven granite under thatch lodges and separate camping facilities elsewhere on the property. Activities on offer include game drives, game walks, bird watching, tours to famous rock art galleries, as well as tours to Rhodes Grave. The Big Cave property is approximately 2,000 آكرs (8.1 كم2), and is ideal for walking and birdwatching. Facilities include a natural rock pool for swimming, the "Leopards Lair" bar and dining area which incorporates a huge granite boulder into the building, as well as separate library area.[29]

Camp Amalinda, which offers game viewing, hiking, bird watching, climbing and horse-riding.[30] and Matobo Ingwe Lodge are commercial lodges.

السياحة[عدل]

تعتبر السدود والمناطق المحيطة بها كسد ماليم مناطق ملائمة لمشاهدة المباريات وصيد الأسماك والمشي وركوب القوارب.

الوصول إلى الموقع[عدل]

By road from Bulawayo: Take Robert Mugabe Way in the city centre; this turns into Matopos Road which continues south some 30 km to the park boundary. This is a two-lane tarred road. A single lane tarred road continues to Maleme Dam and Rest Camp. The remaining roads in the park are gravel or earth, but suitable for most vehicles. However, access to Toghwana Dam during the rainy season may require four wheel drive.

The park can also be reached from Gwanda: taking the Thuli-Makwe road towards Kezi and turning north on the main Kezi-Bulawayo road.

عروض المباريات[عدل]

Some game can be seen throughout the park, with regular sitings of white rhino, sable antelope and impala. However, the best viewing is to be had in the 105 km2 Game Park, in the west of the national park. The game park, also known as Whovi or Hove Wild Area was established with animals translocated from the border areas of Hwange National Park.[31] It has been restocked with white and black rhinos.[32] Other animals to be seen include sable antelope, giraffe, zebra, impala, wildebeest and ostrich. On rare occasion in the late afternoon to early evening visitors, can be lucky enough to spot leopard, with many nights being disturbed by the ruckus of baboons screaming due to leopard attacks. There are two game viewing hides.

A group of Boy Scouts hiking up Nyahwe mountain with Shumbashawa mountain in the background.

Hiking[عدل]

With beautiful scenery, pleasant climate and safe environment, Matobo offers excellent hiking country. Shorter hikes and walks include:

  • Lakeside walk, Maleme Dam, from Fish Eagle lodge
  • Mount Pomongwe, near Maleme Camp
  • Maleme Camp to Pomongwe Cave rock paintings[33]

Longer hikes include:

  • Climbing mount Shumbashawa, near Gordon Park
  • Climbing Nyahwe mountain
  • Hike from Toghwana Dam to Inanke Cave and rock paintings.[33]

Accompanied hikes, with an armed game scout are available from Maleme Rest Camp[21]

الركض[عدل]

سباق الركض السنوي في المنتزه على المسار المخصص للركض بطول 33 ميل.[21]

ركوب الخيل بالقرب من سد ماليم.

ركوب الخيل[عدل]

يتم ترتيب الجياد تحت إشراف من قبل موظفي متنزهات الحياة البرية.[33] There are two routes:

  • From Maleme Camp and visiting scenic locations in the Maleme valley and environs.
  • From Whitewater Office into the game park for game viewing.[21]

صيد السمك[عدل]

يوجد العديد من السدود في المنتزه، ما يتيح الفرص بالاستمتاع بصيد الأسماك، خاصة سمك البلطي وسمك القاروس، دون الخوف من خطر التماسيح. أخذ سمك القاروس من محطة الأبحاث الخاصة بسد ماليم ووزع على سبعة من السدود الموجودة في المنتزة[11]. رسوم دخول المنتزه تشمل رخصة الصيد.[8].

Boating[عدل]

Boating is possible on the larger dams, such as Maleme, Mtshelele, Toghwana and Lake Matopos. Privately owned boats are permitted subject to approval of the parks' officials.[8]

ماتوبو في الثقافة الشعبية[عدل]

A Zimbabwean cheese has been named Matopos, after the hills.[34]

The name of the park has been used twice in films: According to director Stéphanie Machuret, the title and landscape in her 2007 film Matopos, about a traditional healer, were inspired by the park.[35][36] The name was also used for the fictional Democratic Republic of Matobo in the film The Interpreter.

طالع أيضاً[عدل]

روابط خارجية[عدل]

المراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ اكتب عنوان المرجع بين علامتي الفتح <ref> والإغلاق </ref> للمرجع wice
  2. ^ Pitman, D. 1979. You must be new around here, Books of Rhodesia. ISBN 978-0-86920-195-4
  3. ^ مركز اليونسكو للتراث العالمي: تلال ماتوبو
  4. ^ أ ب ت ث Zimbabwe - The Spirit of Matobo (Matopos) Siyabona Africa
  5. ^ أ ب الحدائق الوطنية في زيمبابوي. مجلة السفر الأفريقية على الانترنت
  6. ^ Mountain bike safaris in the Matobo hills Adventure trails
  7. ^ Du Toit, R. 2000 Zimbabwe Task 1.2-1.5 Rhino Resource Center
  8. ^ أ ب ت Matobo National Park Undated pamphlet by Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Authority
  9. ^ Chiweshe, N. 2007. Black Eagles and hyraxes — the two flagship species in the conservation of wildlife in the Matobo Hills, Zimbabwe. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology, 78, 381-386.
  10. ^ أ ب Matobo National Park Victoria Falls Safaris
  11. ^ أ ب Round-table meeting on research needs in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries in Zimbabwe, 1991, FAO document repository.
  12. ^ Donnelly, B.G. and Marshall, B.E. 2003. The biology of Barbus mattozi Guimaraes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in a Zimbabwean reservoir. 2. Growth. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 28, 43-48 [1]
  13. ^ Macgregor, AM 1951. Some milestones in the Precambrian of Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings of the Geological Society of South Africa
  14. ^ Pye, K., Goudie, A.S. and Thomas, R.S.G. 1984. A test of petrological control in the development of bornhardts and koppies on the Matopos Batholith . Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 9, 455-467.
  15. ^ أ ب Cooke, C.K. 1963. Excavation at Pomongwe Cave, Matopo Hills. South African Bulletin of Archaeological Research, 75–151
  16. ^ Garlake, P. 1987. The Painted Caves, an introduction to the prehistoric art of Zimbabwe. Modus, Harare.
  17. ^ أ ب ت Information from site museums, maintained by the Zimbabwe Department of Museums and Monuments
  18. ^ أ ب Zimbabwe's cities. Zimupdate.com
  19. ^ Taruvinga, P. 2003. Salvaging Vandalised Rock Art at Domboshava National Monument in North-eastern Zimbabwe. In: ICOMOS World Report 2001-2002 on Monuments and Sites in Danger. International Council on Monuments and Sites [2]
  20. ^ Brain, C.K. 1983The Hunters of the Hunted? An introduction to African cave taophonomy. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-07090-2 [3]
  21. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Matobo National Park Africa-Onweb.
  22. ^ "Killed the Matabele God: Burnham, the American scout, may end uprising" (PDF). New York Times. June 25, 1896. ISSN 0093-1179. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2007-09-28. 
  23. ^ Farwell، Byron (2001). The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Land Warfare: An Illustrated World View. W. W. Norton & Company. صفحة 539. ISBN 0-393-04770-9. 
  24. ^ Proctor، Tammy M. (July 2000). "A Separate Path: Scouting and Guiding in Interwar South Africa". Comparative Studies in Society and History 42 (3). ISSN 3548-1356. 
  25. ^ Forster، Reverend Dr. Michael. "The Origins of the Scouting Movement" (DOC). Netpages. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2007-10-02. 
  26. ^ Maylam, P. 2002. Monuments memorials and the mystique of empire: the immortalisation of Cecil Rhodes in the twentieth century. African Sociological Review, 6 (1) [4]
  27. ^ Block, R. 1998. Now in Bad Odor in Zimbabwe, Rhodes Isn't Safe in His Grave. Wall Street Journal, Dec. 9, 1998: 1, 6
  28. ^ Camping at Gordon Park Boy Scouts Association of Zimbabwe: Matabeleland Province
  29. ^ "Welcome to Big Cave Camp". اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2010-01-26. 
  30. ^ Camp Amalinda - Lodge in Matobo Hills
  31. ^ Davison, T. 1967. Wankie, the Story of a Great Game Reserve, Books of Africa. ASIN B0007JZPIQ
  32. ^ Rachlow, J.L., Kie, J.G. and Berger, J. 2001. Territoriality and spatial patterns of white rhinoceros in Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Ecology, 37, 295 - 304 [5].
  33. ^ أ ب ت Matobo National Park Undated map, Zimbabwe Tourism Authority
  34. ^ Matopos Cheese Dairiboard Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd
  35. ^ Stéphanie Machuret Matopos International Museum of Women
  36. ^ Matopos, listing at Internet movie database