فريدريك جاكسون تيرنر

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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فريدريك جاكسون تيرنر

فريدريك جاكسون تيرنر‏ (من ‏14 من نوفمبر 1861م حتى 14 من مارس 1932م) كان مؤرخًا أمريكيًا في أوائل القرن العشرين عمل في جامعة ويسكنسن حتى 1910م ثم في جامعة هارفارد. وقام بتدريب العديد من حملة الدكتوراه، الذين شغلوا مراكز بارزة في مهنة التاريخ. وقد كان يشجع استخدام الطرق الكمية والطرق متعددة التخصصات، مع التركيز أحيانًا على الغرب الأوسط. وأفضل ما يُعرف به هي مقالته "أهمية الحدود في التاريخ الأميركي" (The Significance of the Frontier in American History) التي شكّلت أفكاره أطروحة الحدود (Frontier Thesis). وقد كان يزعم أن الحدود الغربية المتحركة قد شَكّلت الديمقراطية الأمريكية والشخصية الأمريكية من الفترة الاستعمارية حتى عام 1890م، كما اشتهر أيضًا بنظرياته حول الإقليمية الجغرافية. في السنوات الأخيرة، شهد التاريخ الغربي خلافات محتدمة حول أطروحته المتعلقة بالحدود، ولكن مع نقطة توافق واحدة، ألا وهي تأثيره العظيم على الدراسة العلمية التاريخية والفكر الأمريكي.

المراجع[عدل]

  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. Edwards, Everett E. (comp.) The early writings of Frederick Jackson Turner, with a list of all his works. Compiled by Everett E. Edwards. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1938.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. كتاب مجاني: Rise of the New West, 1819-1829 على مشروع غوتنبرغ
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. ed. "Correspondence of the French ministers to the United States, 1791-1797" in American Historical Association. Annual report ... for the year 1903. Washington, 1904.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. "Is Sectionalism in America Dying Away?" (1908). American Journal of Sociology, 13: 661-75.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. "Social Forces in American History," presidential address before the American Historical Association American Historical Review, 16: 217-33.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York: Holt, 1921.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The significance of the section in American history." Wisconsin Magazine Of History, vol. 8, no. 3 (Mar 1925) pp. 255–280.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Significance of Sections in American History. New York: Holt, 1932.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. "Dear Lady": the letters of Frederick Jackson Turner and Alice Forbes Perkins Hooper, 1910-1932. Edited by Ray Allen Billington. Huntington Library, 1970.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. "Turner's Autobiographic Letter." Wisconsin Magazine Of History, vol. 19, no. 1 (Sep 1935) pp. 91–102.
  • Turner, Frederick Jackson. America's Great Frontiers and Sections: Frederick Jackson Turner's Unpublished Essays edited by Wilbur R. Jacobs. University of Nebraska Press, 1965.

المصادر الثانوية[عدل]

  • Billington, Ray Allen. "Why Some Historians Rarely Write History: A Case Study of Frederick Jackson Turner," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 50, No. 1. (Jun., 1963), pp. 3–27. in JSTOR
  • Billington, Ray Allen. America's Frontier Heritage (1984). detailed analysis of Turner's theories from social science perspective
  • Billington, Ray Allen. ed,. The Frontier Thesis: Valid Interpretation of American History? (1966). The major attacks and defenses of Turner.
  • Billington, Ray Allen. Frederick Jackson Turner: historian, scholar, teacher. (1973). full-scale biography; online at ACLS e-books
  • Bogue, Allan G. "Frederick Jackson Turner Reconsidered," The History Teacher, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Feb., 1994), pp. 195–221 in JSTOR
  • Bogue, Allan G. Frederick Jackson Turner: Strange Roads Going Down. (1988) along with Billington (1973), the leading full-scale biography
  • Boles, John B. "Turner, The Frontier, and the Study of Religion in America." Journal of the Early Republic (1993) 13#2 pp 205–216. in JSTOR
  • Burkhart, J. A. "The Turner Thesis: A Historian's Controversy." Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 31, no. 1 (Sep 1947), pp. 70–83.
  • Cronon, E. David. An Uncommon Professor: Frederick Jackson Turner at Wisconsin, Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 78, no. 4 (Summer 1995), pp. 276–293.
  • Cronon, William. "Revisiting the Vanishing Frontier: The Legacy of Frederick Jackson Turner," The Western Historical Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Apr., 1987), pp. 157–176 <157:RTVFTL>2.0.CO;2-G online at JSTOR
  • Curti, Merle E. "Frontier in American History: the Methodological Concepts of Frederick Jackson Turner," in Stuart Rice, ed. Methods in Social Science: A Case Book (1931) pp 353–67 online edition
  • Faragher, John Mack (ed.) Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner: The Significance of the Frontier in American History and Other Essays. New York: Holt, 1994. ISBN 0-8050-3298-3
  • Hall, Patricia Kelly, and Steven Ruggles. "'Restless in the midst of Their Prosperity': New Evidence on the Internal Migration of Americans, 1850-2000. Journal of American History 2004 91(3): 829-846. in History Cooperative
  • Hutton, T. R. C. "Beating a Dead Horse: the Continuing Presence of Frederick Jackson Turner in Environmental and Western History." International Social Science Review 2002 77(1-2): 47-57.
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The Progressive Historians—Turner, Beard, Parrington. (1979), highly influential critique.
  • Hutton, T. R. C. "Beating a Dead Horse: the Continuing Presence of Frederick Jackson Turner in Environmental and Western History." International Social Science Review 2002 77(1-2): 47-57. Issn: 0278-2308 Fulltext: in Ebsco;
  • Jacobs, Wilbur R. On Turner's Trail: 100 Years of Writing Western History (1994).
  • Jensen, Richard. "On Modernizing Frederick Jackson Turner: The Historiography of Regionalism," The Western Historical Quarterly 11, No. 3 (July 1980), 307-322 in JSTOR
  • Limerick, Patricia N. "Turnerians All: The Dream of a Helpful History in an Intelligible World," American Historical Review 100 (June 1995):697-716 in JSTOR
  • Moos, Dan. "Reclaiming the Frontier: Oscar Micheaux as Black Turnerian." African American Review 2002 36(3): 357-381. in JSTOR
  • Nichols, Roger L. American Frontier and Western Issues: A Historiographical Review (1986) online edition
  • Scharff, Virginia, et al. "Claims and Prospects of Western History: a Roundtable." Western Historical Quarterly 2000 31(1): 25-46. Issn: 0043-3810 <25:CAPOWH>2.0.CO;2-P in Jstor
  • Steiner, Michael C. "From Frontier to Region: Frederick Jackson Turner and the New Western History," Pacific Historical Review 64 (November 1995): 479-501 in JSTOR

وصلات خارجية[عدل]