مخطط معلومات بياني
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مخططات المعلومات البيانية Infographics هي عبارة عن عروض مرئية رسومية للمعلومات أو البيانات أو المعرفة تهدف إلى عرض معلومات معقدة بسرعة ووضوح. تحسّن هذه المخططات من الفهم والإدراك باستخدام الرسم، إذ تحسن من قدرة نظام التصوّر لدى الإنسان لرؤية الأنماط والتوجهات في البيانات. يمكن تسمية عملية إنشاء مخططات المعلومات البيانية بتصوير البيانات أو تصميم المعلومات أو عمارة المعلومات.
استخدمت مخططات المعلومات منذ سنوات عديدة. وقد ظهرت أدوات مجانية لإنشاء هذه المخططات، وهي متوفرة للاستخدام على نطاق واسع. كما سمحت مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي كفيسبوك وتويتر للجمهور باستخدام مخططات المعلومات الفردية ونشرها بين المستخدمين.
في الصحف، تستخدم مخططات المعلومات البيانية بكثافة، كما في تقارير حالة الطقس والخرائط و مخططات البيانات الإحصائية. ثمة كتب تبنى بأكملها باستخدام المخططات البيانية، ككتاب كيف تعمل الأشياء للكاتب ديفيد ماكاولي.
تستخدم الخرائط الحديثة، خصوصاً خرائط الطرق وأنظمة النقل، تقنيات مخططات المعلومات لدمج المجموعات المنوعة من المعلومات، كوضع تخطيطات الشبكات ونقاط التحويل والمعالم المحلية. أما خرائط النقل العام كتلك الخاصة بمترو واشنطن ومترو أنفاق لندن فهو أمثلة معروفة على مخططات المعلومات البيانية. كما توجد في بعض الأماكن العامة كمحطات العبور نظم إشارات متكاملة تضمن رموزاً موحدة وخرائط مبسطة.
The three parts of all infographics are the visual, the content, and the knowledge. The visual consists of colors and graphics. There are two different types of graphics – theme and reference. Theme graphics are included in all infographics and represent the underlying visual representation of the data. Reference graphics are generally icons that can be used to point to certain data, although they are not always found in infographics. Statistics and facts usually serve as the content for infographics, and can be obtained from any number of sources, including census data and news reports. One of the most important aspects of infographics is that they contain some sort of insight into the data that they are presenting – this is the knowledge.
Infographics are effective because of their visual element. Humans receive input from all five of their senses (sight, touch, hearing, smell, taste), but they receive significantly more information from vision than any of the other four. Fifty percent of the human brain is dedicated to visual functions, and images are processed faster than text. The brain processes pictures all at once, but processes text in a linear fashion, meaning it takes much longer to obtain information from text. Furthermore, it is estimated that 65% of the population are visual learners (as opposed to auditory or kinesthetic), so the visual nature of infographics caters to a large portion of the population. Entire business processes or industry sectors can be made relevant to a new audience through a guidance design technique that leads the eye. The page may link to a more complete report, but the infographic primes the reader making the subject-matter more accessible.
When designing the visual aspect of an infographic, a number of considerations must be made to optimize the effectiveness of the visualization. The six components of visual encoding are spatial, marks, connection, enclosure, retinal properties, and temporal encoding. Each of these can be utilized in its own way to represent relationships between different types of data. However, studies have shown that spatial position is the most effective way to represent numerical data and leads to the fastest and easiest understanding by viewers. Therefore, the designers often spatially represent the most important relationship being depicted in an infographic.
There are also three basic provisions of communication that need to be assessed when designing an infographic – appeal, comprehension, and retention. Appeal is the idea that the communication needs to engage its audience. Comprehension implies that the viewer should be able to easily understand the information that is presented to them. And finally, retention means that the viewer should remember the data presented by the infographic. The order of importance of these provisions depends on the purpose of the infographic. If the infographic is meant to convey information in an unbiased way, such as in the domains of academia or science, comprehension should be considered first, then retention, and finally appeal. However, if the infographic is being used for commercial purposes, then appeal becomes most important, followed by retention and comprehension. When infographics are being used for editorial purposes, such as in a newspaper, appeal is again most important, but is followed first by comprehension and then retention.
When the varieties of factors listed above are taken into consideration when designing infographics, they can be a highly efficient and effective way to convey large amounts of information in a visual manner.
تصوير البيانات [عدل]
غالباً ما تستخدم عملية تصوير البيانات في مخططات المعلومات البيانية. ثمة أنواع عديدة من التصويرات البيانية التي يمكن استخدامها لتمثيل نفس مجموعات البيانات. لذا من الأهمية بمكان تحديد التصوير الملائم لمجموعة البيانات ومخططات المعلومات، وذلك بأخذ خصائص الرسوم البيانية بالإعتبار، كالموقع والشكل واللون والحجم. هناك خمس أنواع أساسية من فئات التصوير، وهي:
المتسلسلات الزمنية [عدل]
متسلسلة زمنية data is one of the most common forms of data visualization. It documents sets of values over time. Examples of graphics in this category include index charts, stacked graphs, small multiples, and horizon graphs. Index charts are ideal to use when raw values are less important than relative changes. It is an interactive مخطط بياني خطي that shows percentage changes for a collection of متسلسلة زمنية data based on a selected index point. For example, stock investors could use this because they are less concerned with the specific price and more concerned with the rate of growth. Stacked graphs are area charts that are stacked on top of each other, and depict aggregate patterns. They allow viewers to see overall patterns and individual patterns. However, they do not support negative numbers and make it difficult to accurately interpret trends. An alternative to stacked graphs is small multiples. Instead of stacking each area chart, each series is individually shown so the overall trends of each sector are more easily interpreted. Horizon graphs are a space efficient method to increase the data density of a time-series while preserving resolution.
البيانات الإحصائية [عدل]
توزيع احتمال reveal trends based on how numbers are distributed. Common examples include مدرج تكراري and مخطط صندوق (إحصاء وصفي)s, which convey statistical features such as متوسط, وسيط (إحصاء), and قيمة شاذة. In addition to these common infographics, alternatives include stem-and-leaf plots, Q-Q plots, scatter plot matrices (SPLOM) and parallel coordinates. For assessing a collection of numbers and focusing on frequency distribution, stem-and-leaf plots can be helpful. The numbers are binned based on the first significant digit, and within each stack binned again based on the second significant digit. On the other hand, Q-Q plots compare two توزيع احتمالs by graphing quantiles against each other. This allows the viewer to see if the plot values are similar and if the two are linearly related. SPLOM is a technique that represents the relationships among multiple variables. It uses multiple scatter plots to represent a pairwise relation among variables. Another statistical distribution approach to visualize multivariate data is parallel coordinates. Rather than graphing every pair of variables in two dimensions, the data is repeatedly plotted on a parallel axis and corresponding points are then connected with a line. The advantage of parallel coordinates is that they are relatively compact, allowing many variables to be shown simultaneously.
Maps are a natural way to represent جغرافيا data. Time and space can be depicted through the use of flow maps. Line strokes are used with various widths and colors to help encode information. Choropleth maps, which encode data through color and geographical region, are also commonly used. Graduated symbol maps are another method to represent geographical data. They are an alternative to choropleth map and use symbols, such as دائرة مجزأةs for each area, over a map. This map allows for more dimensions to represented using various shapes, size, and color. Cartograms, on the other hand, completely distort the shape of a region and directly encode a data variable. Instead of using a geographic map, regions are redrawn proportionally to the data. For example, each region can be represented by a circle and the size/color is directly proportional to other information, such as population size.
البيانات الهيكلية [عدل]
Many data sets, such as spatial entities of countries or common structures for governments, can be organized into natural hierarchies. Node-link diagrams, adjacency diagrams, and enclosure diagrams are all types of infographics that effectively communicate hierarchical data. Node-link diagrams are a popular method due to the tidy and space-efficient results. A node-link diagram is similar to a tree, where each node branches off into multiple sub-sections. An alternative is adjacency diagrams, which is a space-filling variant of the node-link diagram. Instead of drawing a link between hierarchies, nodes are drawn as solid areas with sub-sections inside of each section. This method allows for size to be easily represented than in the node-link diagrams. Enclosure diagrams are also a space-filling visualization method. However, they uses containment rather than adjacency to represent the hierarchy. Similar to the adjacency diagram, the size of the node is easily represented in this model.
Network visualization explores relationships, such as friendships and cliques. Three common types are force-directed layout, arc diagrams, and matrix view. Force-directed layouts are a common and intuitive approach to network layout. In this system, nodes are similar to charged particles, which repel each other. Links are used to pull related nodes together. Arc diagrams are one-dimensional layouts of nodes with circular arcs linking each node. When used properly, with good order in nodes, cliques and bridges are easily identified in this layout. Alternatively, رياضياتي and علم الحاسوب more often use matrix views. Each value has an (x,y) value in the matrix that corresponds to a node. By using color and saturation instead of text, values associated with the links can be perceived rapidly. While this method makes it hard to view the path of the nodes, there are no line crossings, which in a large and highly connected network can quickly become too cluttered.
While all of these visualizations can be effectively used on their own, many modern infographics combine multiple types into one graphic, along with other features, such as رسم توضيحي (فن) and text. Some modern infographics do not even contain data visualization, and instead are simply a colorful and succinct ways to present knowledge. Fifty-three percent of the 30 most-viewed infographics on the infographic sharing site visual.ly did not contain actual data.
Infographics can be created by hand using simple everyday tools such as graph paper, pencils, markers, and rulers. However, today they are more often created using computer software, which is often both faster and easier. They can be created with general illustration software, such as Adobe Illustrator or the freeware Inkscape. There are also a number of specialized websites and tools that can be used to construct infographics.
Diagrams can be manually created and drawn using Creately, which can be downloaded for the desktop or used online. It also includes a number of templates to get users started on their diagrams. Additionally, it allows users to collaborate on diagrams in real time over the Internet. Gliffy is a similar diagram creation tool that requires a paid subscription to use.
Tableau Public is a downloadable program that automatically parses datasets when users upload them. It then suggests visualizations of the data and allows the user to customize the infographic using a simple drag-and-drop interface. Users may also simultaneously make a number of infographics using different parts of the same dataset. It provides users with HTML of their infographic so that they can share it on the web.
ManyEyes is a project by IBM that allows users to create visualizations from either their own or other users’ uploaded datasets. They can then share their visualizations with all the other users, who can comment on and modify the visualization. It is meant as a sharing and collaboration platform for infographics, allowing them to change over time based on input from numerous people.
A wealth of global data from sources such as the OECD and World Bank are built into the website and desktop program Gapminder. Users can view and customize infographics of world data such as birth rates and GDP. It was built on a platform called Trendalyzer, which was sold to Google in 2007. This explains some of the similarities between Gapminder and Google Public Data Explorer, which is a large online repository of publicly available data from resources such as the U.S. Census Bureau, the World Resources Institute, and Eurostat. Users can also upload their own datasets. Users can select specific data from a set, and the site will create visualizations of the data in the form of different graphs, such as bar and line graphs. There are a number of options for users to tailor the visualization by changing the scale, axes, and other variables.
Visual.ly is a large infographics-sharing site that allows users to upload visualizations that they have created and explore other users’ visualizations by topic area. There are also several visualizations based on social network data that users can select and customize based on their own social network data.
There are also numerous tools to create very specific types of visualizations. The Photo Stats App and InFoto can be used to create a visualization based on embedded data in the photos on a user’s smartphone. Users can create an infographic of their resume using visualize.me or a “picture of their digital life” using Intel’s What About Me? The site Wordle allows users to provide text and create word clouds from it.
See also [عدل]
- صورة تساوي ألف كلمة
- Argument map
- مخطط بياني
- Condegram spiral plot
- Digital dashboard
- Data Presentation Architecture
- Data visualization
- تصميم الجرافيك
- فنون مرئية
- Graphic organizers
- تصميم المعلومات
- قائمة برمجيات الرسم البياني
- التصور العلمي
- الرسوم البيانية الإحصائية
- Technical illustration
- Isotype (picture language)
- تسلسل زمني
- Visualization (graphic)
- News Illustrated
- Maestro Concept
- ^ Doug Newsom and Jim Haynes (2004). Public Relations Writing: Form and Style. p.236.
- Mark Smiciklas (2012). The Power of Infographics: Using Pictures to Communicate and Connect with Your Audience.
- Heer, J., Bostock, M., & Ogievetskey, V. (2010). A tour through the visualization zoo. Communications of the ACM, 53(6), 59-67.
- Card, Scott (2009). Information visualization. In A. Sears & J. A. Jacko (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction: Design Issues, Solutions, and Applications (pp. 510-543). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
- ^ USA Today Snapshots. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/snapshot.htm
- “The Anatomy of an Infographic: 5 Steps to Create a Powerful Visual”
- ^ David McCandless (2010). The Beauty of Data Visualization. TED Talk
- ^ Turnbull, Dominic. "EPRA real economy infographic". www.epra.com/media/Real_estate_in_the_real_economy_-_EPRA_INREV_report_1353577808132.PDF. http://www.epra.com/regulation-and-reporting/the-property-business/. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- Jason Lankow, Josh Ritchie, Ross Crooks (2012). Infographics: The Power of Visual Storytelling
- Heer, J., Bostock, M., & Ogievetsky, V. (2010). A tour through the visualization zoo. Communications of the ACM, 53(6), 59-67.
- ^ Van Slembrouck, Paul, “Analyzing the Top 30 Infographics on Visually”, June 2012. 
- ^ Infogr.am
- ^ Piktochart
- ^ Easel.ly
- ^ Creately
- ^ Gliffy
- ^ Tableau Public
- ^ ManyEyes [www-958.ibm.com/]
- ^ GapMinder
- ^ Rosmarin, Rachel, “Google Buys Data Visualization Software”, Forbes.com, March 16, 2007. 
- ^ Google Public Data Explorer
- ^ Visual.ly
- ^ Visualize.me
- ^ Intel’s What About Me? http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/what-about-me/what-about-me.html
- ^ Wordle
مطالعة إضافية [عدل]
- Heiner Benking (1981-1988) Requisite inquiry and time-line: computer graphics-infographics http://benking.de/infographics/ see there: Computer Graphics in the Environmental Sector - Possibilities and Limitations of Data-visualisation this citation in chapter 3: technical possibilities and human potentials and capacities, "a picture is more than 10.000 words", and "10.000 miles equal 10.000 books".
- Sullivan, Peter. (1987) Newspaper Graphics. IFRA, Darmstadt.
- Jacques Bertin (1983). Semiology of Graphics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Translation by William Berg of Semiologie Graphique. Paris: Mouton/Gauthier-Villars, 1967.
- William S. Cleveland (1985). The Elements of Graphing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press. ISBN 978-1584655121
- Heiner Benking (1993), Visual Access Strategies for Multi-Dimensional Objects and Issues / "Our View of Life is too Flat", WFSF, Turku, FAW Report TR-93019
- William S. Cleveland (1993). Visualizing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press. ISBN 978-0963488404
- Sullivan, Peter. (1993) Information Graphics in Colour. IFRA, Darmstadt.
- John Emerson (2008). Visualizing Information for Advocacy: An Introduction to Information Design. New York: OSI.
- Paul Lewi (2006). "Speaking of Graphics".
- Thomas L. Hankins (1999). "Blood, dirt, and nomograms: A particular history of graphs". In: Isis, 90:50–80.
- Robert L. Harris (1999). Information Graphics: A Comprehensive Illustrated Reference. Oxford University Press.
- Eric K. Meyer (1997). Designing Infographics. Hayden Books.
- Edward R. Tufte (1983). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Edition, Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
- Edward R. Tufte (1990). Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.
- Edward R. Tufte (1997). Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative. Cheshire,
- Edward R. Tufte (2006). Beautiful Evidence. Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press.
- John Wilder Tukey (1977). Exploratory Data Analysis. Addison-Wesley.
- Sandra Rendgen, Julius Wiedemann (2012). Information Graphics. Taschen Publishing. ISBN 978-3836528795
- Jason Lankow, Josh Ritchie, Ross Crooks (2012). Infographics: The Power of Visual Storytelling. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118314043
روابط خارجية [عدل]
- المعلمات في تاريخ رسم الخرائط المواضيعية والرسومات الإحصائية وتصوير البيانات
- الجدول الدوري لطرق التصور
- مجتمع تصميم الأخبار