ملحق:قائمة الحيوانات المستأنسة

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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هذه قائمة الحيوانات التي تم استئناسها من قبل البشر.[1] وتشمل القائمة حيوانات مثل الماشية، الدواجن والحيوانات الأليفة.

القائمة الكاملة[عدل]

النوع السلف البري التاريخ الموقع الأصلي الغرض الصورة درجة ونوع الاستئناس
كلب (Canis lupus familiaris) ذئب بين 30000 و15000 ق م[2][3] شرق أفريقيا الصيد, الرعي, الرفقة, مكافحة الآقات, اللحم, النقل Pembroke Welsh Corgi 600.jpg أليف; تظهر التغيرات الجسدية حسب الفصيلة
خروف (Ovis orientalis aries) أروية آسيوية بين 11000 و9000 ق م[4][5] جنوب غرب آسيا الملابس, اللحم, الحليب, الجلد Pair of Icelandic Sheep.jpg
خنزير (Sus scrofa domestica) Wild Boar 9000 ق م[6] الشرق الأقصى, الصين اللحم, الجلد, الرفقة Sow with piglet.jpg
ماعز (Capra aegagrus hircus) ماعز بري 8000 BC [7] إيران milk, meat, fibre Capra, Crete 4.jpg
بقرة (Bos primigenius taurus) أرخص (extinct) 8000 BC[8][9] India, الشرق الأوسط, and شمال أفريقيا meat, milk, leather, power, vellum, transportation, soil fertilization
Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus) أرخص (extinct), possibly Gaur 8000 BC India meat, milk, leather, power, vellum, transportation, soil fertilization Bos taurus indicus.jpg
Cat (Felis silvestris catus) African Wildcat 7500 BC [10][11][12][13] شرق أدنى pest control, companionship Neighbours Siamese.jpg tame, some physical changes
دجاجة (Gallus gallus domesticus) Red Junglefowl 6000 BC[14] India and جنوب شرق آسيا meat, eggs, feathers, companionship Gallus gallus male Kaziranga 1.jpg
خنزير غينيا (Cavia porcellus) Montane Guinea Pig 5000 BC[15] Peru meat, companionship Caviaklein.jpg
Donkey (Equus africanus asinus) حمار بري إفريقي 5000 BC[16][17] Egypt transportation, power, meat Donkey 1 arp 750px.jpg
Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) بط بري 4000 BC China meat, fat, foie gras, feathers and down, eggs Kačena.jpg
Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Wild Asian Water buffalo 4000 BC India, China power, meat, milk BUFFALO159.JPG
Honey bee (Apis spp.) Various 4000 BC Multiple places honey, wax, pollination, meat Bee-apis.jpg
حصان (Equus ferus caballus) الحصان البري 4000 BC[18] Eurasian Steppes meat, transportation, power, milk Nokota Horses cropped.jpg tame, some physical changes
Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Wild Dromedary Camel 4000 BC شبه الجزيرة العربية transportation, power, milk, meat Camelus dromedarius at Tierpark Berlin (1).JPG
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Silkworm 3000 BC China silk, food Silkworms3000px.jpg
رنة (Rangifer tarandus) Reindeer 3000 BC [19] Russia meat, milk, transportation, antlers Caribou using antlers.jpg
Domestic Pigeon (Columba livia) Rock Dove 3000 BC Mediterranean Basin show, messenger, meat Orsopapera-colombo 001.JPG some physical changes
Goose (Anser anser domesticus), (Anser cygnoides domesticus) إوز أربد, إوز صيني 3000 BC,

1000 BC (Swan Goose)

Egypt,

شرق آسيا (Swan Goose)

meat, fat, foie gras, feathers and down, eggs, guarding Neugierige Hausgans.JPG
Yak (Bos grunniens) Wild Yak 2500 BC تبت milk, transportation, power, meat, fibre Bos grunniens - Syracuse Zoo.jpg
جمل ذو سنامين (Camelus bactrianus) Wild Bactrian Camel 2500 BC آسيا الوسطى milk, transportation, power, meat Chameau de bactriane.JPG
Llama (Lama glama) Guanaco 2400 BC [20] Peru transportation, power, meat Pack llamas posing near Muir Trail.jpg
Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) فكونة 2400 BC [20] Peru milk, transportation, fibre, meat Corazon Full.jpg
Domesticated guineafowl (Numida meleagris) دجاج وادي غرب أفريقيا 2400 BC [21] أفريقيا meat, eggs Numida meleagris Ngorongoro Conservation Area 1.jpg
Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Wild Asian Elephant 2000 BC Pakistan power, transportation Elephas maximus bengalensis02 1920.jpg semidomesticated
Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) European Polecat, Steppe Polecat 1500 BC أوروبا hunting, companionship Ferret 2008.png
Fancy mouse (Mus musculus) فأر المنازل 1100 BC China companionship, research Minimouse.jpg tame, significant physical changes
Fallow Deer (Dama dama) Fallow Deer 1000 BC Mediterranean Basin meat, antlers Fallow deer in field.jpg
بط موسكوفي (Cairina moschata) Muscovy Duck 700–600 BC [20] South America meat, fat MuscovyDuck.jpg
Cochineal Insect (Oactylopius coccus) Cochineal Insect 700–500 BC [20] تشيلي, Mexico red dye Dactylopius coccus (Barlovento) 04 ies.jpg
الطاووس الهندي (Pavo cristatus) Indian Peafowl 500 BC India show, feathers, meat Indian Peahens I IMG 9647.jpg
Barbary Dove (Streptopelia risoria) African Collared Dove 500 BC شمال أفريقيا show Feral Barbary Dove.jpg
ببغاءs, Parakeets and Love birds (order: Psittaciformes) Uncertain[22] 300 BC Multiple places companionship, show, talking bird Sunconurepuzzle.jpg
Banteng (Bos javanicus) Wild Banteng Unknown جنوب شرق آسيا, Java Island meat, milk, power KA Zoo Huftieranlage.jpg
Gayal (Bos gaurus frontalis) Gaur Unknown جنوب شرق آسيا meat, power Bandipur 2.jpg
Perro Yaghan (Pseudalopex culpaeus) Culpeo Unknown أرض النار Hunting, companionship, warmth Culpeo MC.jpg
Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) Mandarin Duck Unknown China meat, fat Aix galericulata - Zürich - Hafen Riesbach 2011-01-14 15-58-32.JPG
Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis), Hill Myna (Gracula religiosa) Common Starling ancient times[23] India, Australia companionship, talking bird Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) on Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) in Kolkata W IMG 4297.jpg Raised in Captivity
Roman Snail (Helix pomatia) Helix pomatia 100 AD? أوروبا meat Helix pomatia 89a.jpg
Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) الديك الرومي البري 180 [20] Mexico, United States meat, feathers Bronzepute 04.jpg
Stingless Bee (Melipona beecheii) Melipona beecheii 180 [20] Mexico, Amazon Basin honey Irapuã - REFON.jpg semidomesticated
سمك ذهبي (Carassius auratus auratus) Prussian Carp 300–400 China companionship Gullfiskur.jpg some physical changes
Domestic Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) European Rabbit 600 [24] أوروبا meat, pelt, fibre, companionship EnglishSpotRabbitChocolate1(cropped).jpg
تم صامت (Cygnus olor) Mute Swan 1000–1500 أوروبا meat CygneVaires.jpg
Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Japanese Quail 1100–1900 Japan meat Coturnix coturnix (Warsaw zoo)-1.JPG
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Common carp 1200–1500 أوروبا, شرق آسيا meat, show (koi) LakePowellCarp5437.jpg
Canary (Serinus canaria) Atlantic Canary 1600 منطقة جزر الكناري, أوروبا companionship Zwei Kanarienvögel.JPG
Fancy rat (Rattus norvegicus) Brown Rat 19th century المملكة المتحدة companionship, research Ratte-Vache.jpeg
American Mink (Neovison vison) American Mink 19th century North America fur Kunawodna3.JPG
نعامة جملية (Struthio camelus) Ostrich 19th century أفريقيا meat, eggs, feathers, leather, fat Ostriches cape point cropped.jpg
درة (Melopsittacus undulatus) Budgerigar 1850s Australia companionship Melopsittacus undulatus -Zoo Atlanta-8a.jpg
Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) Cockatiel 1870s Australia companionship Nymphicus hollandicus -garden-8.jpg
شنشيلة (Chinchilla chinchilla), (Chinchilla lanigera) Short-tailed chinchilla, Long-tailed chinchilla 1930s أنديز companionship, fur, research Chinchilla lanigera1.jpg
Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Zebra Finch 20th century Australia companionship Zebra finch arp.jpg
Turquoise Parrot (Neophema pulchella) Turquoise Parrot 20th century Australia companionship, show Neophema pulchella -Rainbow Jungle -Australia-8a.jpg
Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Dwarf Hamsters Syrian Hamster, Dwarf Hamsters 1930s Syria companionship, research Golden hamster side 1.jpg
Domesticated silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) Red Fox 1950s Soviet Union pelt, research, companionship Silberfuchs 08.jpg tameness, some physical changes
African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) African clawed frog 1950s جنوب أفريقيا companionship, research Xenopus laevis 1.jpg
Diamond Dove (Geopelia cuneata) Diamond Dove Australia companionship Geopelia cuneata03.jpg
Central Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) Central Bearded Dragon 1970s Australia companionship Bartagame fcm.jpg minor physical changes
Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus) Eclectus Parrot 1980s Australia, إندونيسيا, غينيا الجديدة, جزر سليمان companionship Eclectus roratus-20030511.jpg
Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) Greater Rhea 20th century South America meat, eggs, feathers, leather, fat
Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Emu 1990s Australia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, fat Dromaius novaehollandiae qtl1.jpg
Degu (Octodon degus) Degu 1990s تشيليan أنديز companionship, research Degu eating a piece of dried banana.jpg
Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) Gerbil 1950s أفريقيا and آسيا companionship, research Golden Agouti Male 4-1-05.jpg
Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) Green Iguana 1990s South America companionship, meat, leather St Thomas Marriott Iguana 9 cropped.jpg
Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Axolotl 20th century Mexico research Axolotl ganz.jpg
Andean Marsupial Tree Frog (Gastrotheca riobambae) Andean Marsupial Tree Frog 20th century الإكوادورian أنديز companionship, research Ranamarsupial.jpg
Australian Green Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) Australian Green Tree Frog late 20th century Australia companionship Caerulea3 crop.jpg
Argentine Horned Frog (Ceratophrys ornata) Argentine Horned Frog late 20th century الأرجنتين companionship Argentine Horned Frog (Ceratophrys ornata)1.JPG
Cranwell's horned frog (Ceratophrys cranwelli) Cranwell's Horned Frog late 20th century الأرجنتين companionship Cranwell's horned frog.jpg
Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) Leopard gecko Southeast to central Asia companionship minor physical changes

مراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ Animal Domestication - Table of Dates and Places of Animal Domestication
  2. ^ -c.html Dienekes' Anthropology Blog : Dog domestication in the Aurignacian (c. 32kyBP)
  3. ^ MSNBC : World's first dog lived 31,700 years ago, ate big
  4. ^ Krebs, Robert E. & Carolyn A. (2003). Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions & Discoveries of the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-31342-3. 
  5. ^ Simmons، Paula؛ Carol Ekarius (2001). Storey's Guide to Raising Sheep. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing LLC. ISBN 978-1-58017-262-2. 
  6. ^ Giuffra E, Kijas JM, Amarger V, Carlborg O, Jeon JT, Andersson L (April 2000). "The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression". Genetics 154 (4): 1785–91. PMC 1461048. PMID 10747069. 
  7. ^ Melinda A. Zeder, Goat busters track domestication (Physiologic changes and evolution of goats into a domesticated animal), April 2000.
  8. ^ Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa (Sahara), southwestern Egypt.
  9. ^ Source : Laboratoire de Préhistoire et Protohistoire de l'Ouest de la France [1], (فرنسية).
  10. ^ [2], domestication of the cat on Cyprus, National Geographic.
  11. ^ "Oldest Known Pet Cat? 95DOGGIES00-Year-Old Burial Found on Cyprus". National Geographic News. 2004-04-08. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2007-03-06. 
  12. ^ Muir، Hazel (2004-04-08). "Ancient remains could be oldest pet cat". New Scientist. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2007-11-23. 
  13. ^ Walton، Marsha (April 9, 2004). "Ancient burial looks like human and pet cat". CNN. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2007-11-23. 
  14. ^ West B., Zhou B-X. (1989). "Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication" (PDF). World’s Poultry Science Journal 45 (3): 205–18. doi:10.1079/WPS19890012. 
  15. ^ History of the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) in South America, a summary of the current state of knowledge
  16. ^ Beja-Pereira, Albano, et al. (18 June 2004). "African Origins of the Domestic Donkey". Science 304 (1781). doi:10.1126/science.1096008. PMID 15205528. [New Scientist ضع ملخصا]. 
  17. ^ Roger Blench, The history and spread of donkeys in Africa بي دي إف  (235 KB)
  18. ^ The Domestication of the Horse; see also Domestication of the horse
  19. ^ Domestication of Reindeer
  20. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح D.L Johnson and B.K. Swartz, Jr. Evidence for Pre-Columbian Animal Domestication in the New World
  21. ^ Guinea Fowl
  22. ^ Wright، T.F.؛ Schirtzinger E. E., Matsumoto T., Eberhard J. R., Graves G. R., Sanchez J. J., Capelli S., Muller H., Scharpegge J., Chambers G. K. & Fleischer R. C. (2008). "A Multilocus Molecular Phylogeny of the Parrots (Psittaciformes): Support for a Gondwanan Origin during the Cretaceous". Mol Biol Evol 25 (10): 2141–2156. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn160. PMC 2727385. PMID 18653733. 
  23. ^ http://www.writers-free-reference.com/10pets.htm
  24. ^ Interesting Rabbit Domestication History