ويكيبيديا:أصد للإسبانية

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
اذهب إلى: تصفح، ‏ ابحث


The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

IPA Examples English approximation
Consonants
b bestia; vaca; envidia best
β bebé; vivir [1] Between baby and bevy
d dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
ð arder; ciudad; padre [1] this
f fase; café face
ɡ gato; lengua; guerra got
ɣ trigo; Argos [1] between a light go and ahold
ʝ poyo [1] between beige and d'you
k caña; laca; quisimos scan
l lino; calor; principal lean
ʎ llave; pollo [2] million (merged with /ʝ/ in most dialects).
m madre; comer; anfibio [3] mother
n nido; anillo; sin [3] need
ɲ ñoquis; cabaña [3] canyon
θ cereza; zorro; lacero; paz [4] thing (in central and northern Spain only; elsewhere like /s/)
p pozo; topo spouse
r raro; perro; enrachado; alrededor; amor eterno[5] trilled 'r'
ɾ pero; bravo; amor eterno [5] like ladder in American English
s saco; casa; puertas sack
t tamiz; átomo stand
chubasco; acechar choose
x jamón; general; sujetar, reloj [6] loch, Bach (like ham in many dialects)
Marginal sounds
ŋ cinco; venga; Don Juan [3] sing; rink
ʃ Kirchner, Xirau [7] shack
z rasgo, mismo [8] prison
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a falso Barack Obama; father
e peso bed[9]
i cinco; y see
o bosque code
u cucaracha food
Diphthongs
ai hay; aire eye
au pausa house; trout
ei rey; peine ray; slave; vein
eu neutro "eh-oo" or "ey-oo"[10]
ja hacia; diabólico "yah": yonder; embryonic
je tierra; asiento yellow; Juliet
jo radio audio; embryo
ju viuda beauty; mute; you
oi hoy; oiga boycott; coin; poison
ou bou broke; floating; blow
wa cuadro; Juan quality; wad
we fuego "weh": sequential; when
wi fuimos, muy "wee": sweet; weep
wo cuota quota
Other symbols used in transcription of Spanish pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable),
viuda [ˈbjuða]

Notes[عدل]

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث /b/, /d/, /ʝ/ and /ɡ/ are approximants ([β̞], [ð̞], [ʝ˕] [ɣ˕]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pause, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɟʝ, ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, j, g.(Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. ^ In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become /ʃ/ or /ʒ/. see yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ occurs.
  4. ^ In Andalusia, Canary Islands, and Latin America /θ/ has merged into /s/; see ceceo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  5. ^ أ ب The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, before consonants, and word-finally; [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  6. ^ For many speakers, the ‹j› is silent at the end of a word, in which case reloj is pronounced [reˈlo].
  7. ^ Found in loanwords.
  8. ^ Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  9. ^ The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of pay (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  10. ^ In English, something similar to /eu/ is sometimes heard for "oh" in exaggerations of the Queen's English by American comedians such as كارول بيرنت.

References[عدل]

  • Martínez-Celdrán، Eugenio؛ Fernández-Planas، Ana Ma.؛ Carrera-Sabaté، Josefina (2003)، "Castilian Spanish"، Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259