ويكيبيديا:أصد للبرتغالية

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents لغة برتغالية pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. There are two major standards, one of Portugal (EP) and one of Brazil (BP). Neither variant is preferred over the other at Wikipedia except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant (such as a place in Brazil or a Portuguese artist).

See Portuguese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Portuguese.

IPA Consonants
علم البرتغال علم البرازيل Examples English equivalent
b b besta lambast
β bado[1] Between baby and bevy
ð d rapadura[1] this
d dedo condone
digo [2] engine
f fase; café deface
ɡ ɡ gato; guerra ago
ɣ magarefe  trigo [1] between a light ago and ahold
k cama; laca; queijo scan
l linho; calor slip
ɫ w mal; principal [3] pill (most dialects)
ʎ velho roughly similar to million
m mãe; comer almighty
n nata; ano sonic
ɲ banho roughly similar to canyon
p poço; topo spouse
ʁ ʁ raro; arranha; enrascado[4] Depends on variant (see note)
ɾ morte[5]
ɾ por acaso; raro; aranha; bravo roughly similar to ladder in American English
s s saco; baço; promessa sack
ʃ escola; mastro; portas fechadas
ʃ chave; baixo hardship
t t taça; átomo stand
tipo; gente[2] reach
v vaca; cavalo divine
z z zebra; casa; portas abertas Brazilian
ʒ rasgado; portas brancas
ʒ gente; jamais rouge, measure
IPA Vowels
Examples
a taça; cabide (BP)
ɐ taça; cabide (EP)
ɐ̃ canto, irmã
e meto, vê; semáforo (BP)
cento
ɛ meta, sé
i tipo, pequeno (BP), proibir
ĩ cinco
ɨ gente, semáforo (EP)
o formoso, avô, Portugal (BP)
õ conto, ponteiro
ɔ formosa, avó
u cubo, Portugal (EP), boneco, reunir
ũ fungo, função
IPA Semivowels [6]
Examples English equivalent
j sai; saibro, corações you, boy
w quando; guarda; frequente; Saguão wine, cow
IPA Stress
Examples
ˈ fria [ˈfɾiɐ]
friamente [ˌfɾiɐˈmẽt(ʃ)(ɨ)].
ˌ

أنظر أيضا[عدل]

مصادر[عدل]

  1. ^ أ ب ت In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation ([β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively) in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [b d ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g. (Mateus & d'Andrade 2000:11).
  2. ^ أ ب In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are affricated to [dʒ, ] before /i, ĩ/.
  3. ^ In European Portuguese, post-vocallic /l/ is usually velarized much like with pill for many English speakers. For most Brazilians, it has been vocalized to [w].
  4. ^ The rhotic consonant represented as <ʁ> has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as [x], [h], [χ], [ʁ], etc., in Brazil and as [ʁ], [r], etc., in Portugal. See also Guttural R#Portuguese.
  5. ^ In Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city it is an alveolar flap, while in many cities of interior of São Paulo state and south of Minas Gerais it may vary to alveolar approximant or retroflex approximant.
  6. ^ The semivowels /w/ and /j/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs. This includes nasal diphthongs such as [ɐ̃ȷ̃] and [ɐ̃w̃].