اقتصاد باكستان

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
اذهب إلى: تصفح، ‏ ابحث

اقتصاد باكستان هو الاقتصاد رقم 26 في العالم من حيث تعادل القدرة الشرائية (PPP)، والناتج المحلي الإجمالي. ويبلغ عدد سكان باكستان أكثر من 186 مليون، وبالتالي فإن دخل الفرد هو 3149 دولار ليحتل بذلك المرتبة 140. باكستان دولة نامية[1][2][3] وهي واحدة من (الأحد عشر القادمين) الدول الإحدى عشرة التي، جنباً إلى جنب مع بريك، لديها القدرة على أن تصبح واحدة من الاقتصادات الكبيرة في العالم في القرن 21.[4] ومع ذلك، بعد عقود من الحرب وعدم الاستقرار الاجتماعي، وذلك اعتباراً من عام 2013، هناك أوجه قصور خطيرة في الخدمات الأساسية مثل النقل بالسكك الحديدية وتوليد الطاقة الكهربائية.[5]

مزيد من القراءة[عدل]

  • Gabol، Nasir (1990). Privatisation in Pakistan,. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. ISBN 92-64-15310-1. 
  • Ahmad, Viqar and Rashid Amjad. 1986. The Management of Pakistan’s Economy, 1947–82. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Ali, Imran. 1997. ‘Telecommunications Development in Pakistan’, in E.M. Noam (ed.), Telecommunications in Western Asia and the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Ali, Imran. 2001a. ‘The Historical Lineages of Poverty and Exclusion in Pakistan’. Paper presented at Conference on Realm, Society and Nation in South Asia. National University of Singapore.
  • Ali, Imran. 2001b. ‘Business and Power in Pakistan’, in A.M. Weiss and S.Z. Gilani (eds), Power and Civil Society in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Ali, Imran. 2002. ‘Past and Present: The Making of the State in Pakistan’, in Imran Ali, S. Mumtaz and J.L. Racine (eds), Pakistan: The Contours of State and Society. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Ali, Imran, A. Hussain. 2002. Pakistan National Human Development Report. Islamabad: UNDP.
  • Ali, Imran, S. Mumtaz and J.L. Racine (eds). 2002. Pakistan: The Contours of State and Society. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Amjad, Rashid. 1982. Private Industrial Investment in Pakistan, 1960–70. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Andrus, J.R. and A.F. Mohammed. 1958. The Economy of Pakistan. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Bahl, R., & Cyan, M. (2009). Local Government Taxation in Pakistan (No. paper0909). International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  • Barrier, N.G. 1966. The Punjab Alienation of Land Bill of 1900. Durham, NC: Duke University South Asia Series.
  • Jahan, Rounaq. 1972. Pakistan: Failure in National Integration. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Kessinger, T.G. 1974. Vilyatpur, 1848–1968. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Kochanek, S.A. 1983. Interest Groups and Development: Business and Politics in Pakistan. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • LaPorte, Jr, Robert and M.B. Ahmad. 1989. Public Enterprises in Pakistan. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
  • Latif, S.M. 1892. Lahore. Lahore: New Imperial Press, reprinted 1981, Lahore: Sandhu Printers.
  • Low, D.A. (ed.). 1991. The Political Inheritance of Pakistan. London: Macmillan.
  • Noman, Omar. 1988. The Political Economy of Pakistan. London: KPI.
  • Papanek, G.F. 1967. Pakistan’s Development: Social Goals and Private Incentives. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Raychaudhuri, Tapan and Irfan Habib (eds). 1982. The Cambridge Economic History of India, 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • White, L.J. 1974. Industrial Concentration and Economic Power. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Ziring, Lawrence. 1980. Pakistan: The Enigma of Political Development. Boulder, Colorado: Folkestone.
  • Ali, Imran. 1987. ‘Malign Growth? Agricultural Colonisation and the Roots of Backwardness in the Punjab’, Past and Present, 114
  • Ali, Imran. August 2002. ‘The Historical Lineages of Poverty and Exclusion in Pakistan’, South Asia, XXV(2).
  • Ali, Imran and S. Mumtaz. 2002. ‘Understanding Pakistan—The Impact of Global, Regional, National and Local Interactions’, in Imran Ali, S. Mumtaz and J.L. Racine (eds), Pakistan: the Contours of State and Society. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Hasan, Parvez. 1998. Pakistan’s Economy at the Crossroads: Past Policies and Present Imperatives. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Hussain, Ishrat. 1999. Pakistan: The Economy of an Elitist State. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Khan, Shahrukh Rafi. 1999. Fifty Years of Pakistan’s Economy: Traditional Topics and Contemporary Concerns. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Kibria, Ghulam. 1999. Shattered Dream: Understanding Pakistan’s Development. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Kukreja, Veena. 2003. Contemporary Pakistan: Political Processes, Conflicts and Crises. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Zaidi, S. Akbar. 1999. Issues in Pakistan’s Economy. Karachi: Oxford University Press
  • Faheem, Khan. 2010. Issues in Pakistan’s Economy. Peshawar:

مراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ Faryal Leghari (3 January 2007). "GCC investments in Pakistan and future trends". Gulf Research Center. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 12 February 2008. 
  2. ^ "Quid Pro Quo 45 – Tales of Success" (PDF). Muslim Commercial Bank of Pakistan. 2007. صفحة 2. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 12 February 2008.  [وصلة مكسورة]
  3. ^ Malcolm Borthwick (1 June 2006). "Pakistan steels itself for sell-offs". BBC News. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 12 February 2008. 
  4. ^ Tavia Grant (8 December 2011). "On 10th birthday, BRICs poised for more growth". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 4 January 2012. 
  5. ^ Declan Walsh (18 May 2013). "Pakistan, Rusting in Its Tracks". The New York Times. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 19 May 2013. natural disasters and entrenched insurgencies, abject poverty and feudal kleptocrats, and an economy near meltdown 
  • Khan Ashan (2014). Economics of Pakistan, 9th edition. Pakistan. 

مصادر خارجية[عدل]