فكر كمالي

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
(بالتحويل من الفكر الكمالي)
اذهب إلى: تصفح، ‏ ابحث

الفكر الكمالي أو الكمالية و الكماليون / الكماليين نسبة إلى مصطفى كمال أتاتورك مؤسس الجمهورية التركية الحديثة الذي أطاح بالخلافة العثمانية وأقر دستوراً علمانياً لذا لا تتمتع الجماعات أو المنظمات الدينية بأي مزايا دستورية في تركيا، وهذا الموقف وتطبيق العلمانية بشكل عام في تركيا نبع من الفكر الكمالي.[1][2][3] ولا يتم دعم منظمات الديانات الأخرى بشكل رسمي، ولكنها في المقابل تتمتع بإدارة ذاتية وحرية العمل.

المصادر[عدل]

  1. ^ Hanioglu، Sükrü (2011). Ataturk: An Intellectual Biography. Princeton University Press. صفحة 153. 
  2. ^ Kösebalaban، Hasan (12 April 2011). Turkish Foreign Policy: Islam, Nationalism, and Globalization. Palgrave Macmillan. صفحة 9. ISBN 978-0-230-11869-0. 
  3. ^ "Elections and the Electoral Process in the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1919"International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp 273–274. "The prominent leaders of the Entente [Freedom and Accord Party] were Turkish-speaking and no different from the Unionists as far as their basic attitudes toward Islam were concerned. Nevertheless, they sought to frustrate the CUP by encouraging non-Turkish groups to attack it for pursuing a policy of Turkification and by pointing out to the conservatives its alleged disregard for Islamic principles and values. The overall effect of this propaganda was to instill ethnic and sectarian-religious discord, which survived the Entente's defeat at the polls ... The Unionists proved to be less vulnerable to accusations of disregard for Islamic precepts and values. Some of the Entente members were known for their cosmopolitan attitudes and close relations with foreign interests. But this did not keep the Entente from accusing the CUP of violating Islamic principles and attempting to restrict the prerogatives of the sultan-caliph in its pamphlets. One such pamphlet, Afiksoz (Candid Words), appealed to the religious-national sentiments of Arabs and claimed that Zionist intrigue was responsible for the abandonment of Libya to the Italians. Such propaganda forced the CUP to seize the role of the champion of Islam. After all, the secular integrationist Ottomanism that it had preached was failing, and the latest manifestation of this failure was the Entente's appeal to segments of Christian communities. The Unionists used Islamic symbols effectively in their election propaganda in 1912. They accused the Entente of trying to separate the offices of the caliphate and the sultanate and thus weakening Islam and the Muslims. There seemed no end to the capital to be gained from the exploitation and manipulation of religious rhetoric. In Izmir, the Entente attacked the CUP's intention to amend Article 35 of the constitution by arguing that the Unionists were thus denouncing the "thirty" days of fasting and "five" daily prayers. This led the town's mufti to plead that "for the sake of Islam and the welfare of the country" religion not be used to achieve political objectives. As with the rhetoric on Turkification, Islam too remained in political discourse long after the elections were over." نسخة محفوظة 09 مارس 2017 على موقع Wayback Machine.
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