جائزة تورنغ

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
(بالتحويل من جائزة تورنج)
اذهب إلى: تصفح، ‏ ابحث
جائزة تورنغ
منحت لـ المساهمون بشكل بارز في علم الحاسوب
البلد نيويورك، (الولايات المتحدة)
سميت بعد آلان تورنج  تعديل قيمة خاصية سمي باسم (P138) في ويكي بيانات
مقدمة من رابطة مكائن الحوسبة (ACM)
قيمة الجائزة 250,000 دولار أمريكي
أول جائزة 1966
آخر جائزة 2014
الموقع الرسمي amturing.acm.org

جائزة تورنغ جائزة تشبه جائزة نوبل ولكنها تمنح لعلماء الحاسوب فقط، جاء اسمها من آلان تورنغ وهو رجل مشهور جعل علم الحاسوب أفضل من خلال اختراع آلة تورنغ واختبار تورنغ.

تاريخ[عدل]

منحت أول مرة في عام 1966 إلى آلان بيرليس الأستاذ في جامعة كارنيغي ميلون،[1] وهي تمنح كل سنة منذ ذلك الحين، في عام 2006 فازت بها فرانسيس إليزابيث وهي أول إمرأة تفوز بهذه الجائزة.[2]

الحائزين على الجائزة[عدل]

السنة الفائز Citation
1966 آلان جاي بيرليس لتأثيره في مجال تقنيات برمجة الحاسوب المتقدمة وبناء المترجمات[1]
1967 موريس ويلكس Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced[3]
1968 ريتشارد هامينغ For his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes[4]
1969 مارفن مينسكي For his central role in creating, shaping, promoting, and advancing the field of artificial intelligence.[5]
1970 جيمس هاردي ويلكنسون For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the high-speed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis[6]
1971 جون مكارثي McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work[7]
1972 ادسخر دكسترا Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950s to the development of the ألغول (لغة برمجة), a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal proponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages[8]
1973 تشارلز وليام باتشمان لإسهاماته البارزة في تكنولوجيا قواعد البيانات[9]
1974 دونالد ارفين كانوث For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to "فن برمجة الحاسوب" through his well-known books in a continuous series by this title[10]
1975 ألن نيويل وهيربرت ألكسندر سيمون In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the مؤسسة راند، and subsequentially [ك‍] with numerous faculty and student colleagues at جامعة كارنيغي ميلون، they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing[11]
1976 مايكل اوزر رابين ودانا ستيوارت سكوت For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem,"[12] which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field[13][14]
1977 جون باكوس For profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for seminal publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages[15]
1978 روبرت فلويد For having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and for helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms[16]
1979 كينيث يوجين ايفرسون For his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL, for his contributions to the implementation of interactive systems, to educational uses of APL, and to programming language theory and practice[17]
1980 توني هور For his fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages[18]
1981 إدجار فرانك كود For his fundamental and continuing contributions to the theory and practice of database management systems, esp. relational databases[19]
1982 ستيفن آرثر كوك For his advancement of our understanding of the complexity of computation in a significant and profound way[20]
1983 كين تومسن ودينيس ماكاليستار ريتشي For their development of generic operating systems theory and specifically for the implementation of the UNIX operating system
1984 نيكلاوس ويرث For developing a sequence of innovative computer languages, EULER, ALGOL-W, MODULA and Pascal
1985 ريتشارد مانينغ كارب For his continuing contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomial-time computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NP-completeness
1986 جون هوبكروفت وروبرت تارجان For fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures
1987 جون كوك For significant contributions in the design and theory of compilers, the architecture of large systems and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC)
1988 إيفان سذرلاند For his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and continuing after
1989 وليام كاهان For his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis. One of the foremost experts on floating-point computations. Kahan has dedicated himself to "making the world safe for numerical computations."
1990 فرناندو خوسيه كورباتو For his pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the general-purpose, large-scale, time-sharing and resource-sharing computer systems, CTSS and مولتكس.
1991 روبن ميلنر For three distinct and complete achievements: 1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott's Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a type-safe exception-handling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics.[21]
1992 بتلر لامبسون For contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations, networks, operating systems, programming systems, displays, security and document publishing.
1993 جوريس هارتمانيس وريتشارد ادوين ستيرنز In recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory.[22]
1994 إدوارد فيغنبوم وراج ريدي For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.[23]
1995 مانويل بلوم In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking.
1996 أمير بنولي For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification.
1997 دوغلاس إنجيلبارت For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.
1998 جيم غراي For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation.
1999 فريدريك فيليبس بروكس، الإبن For landmark contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering.
2000 أندرو تشي تشي ياو In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity.
2001 أولي يوهان دال وكريستين نيجارد For ideas fundamental to the emergence of object-oriented programming, through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67.
2002 رونالد لين ريفست وعدي شامير وليونارد ماكس أديلمان For their ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
2003 ألان كاي For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary object-oriented programming languages, leading the team that developed سمول توك، and for fundamental contributions to personal computing.
2004 فينتون جراي سيرف وروبرت اليوت خان For pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the إنترنت's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking.
2005 بيتر ناور For fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of ALGOL 60, to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming.
2006 فرانسيس إليزابيث آلن For pioneering contributions to the theory and practice of optimizing compiler techniques that laid the foundation for modern optimizing compilers and automatic parallel execution.
2007 إدموند ميلسون كلارك وإرنست ألين ايمرسون وجوزيف سيفاكيس For their roles in developing model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.[24]
2008 باربارا لسكوف For contributions to practical and theoretical foundations of programming language and system design, especially related to data abstraction, fault tolerance, and distributed computing.
2009 تشارلز ثاكر For his pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto, the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC.
2010 ليزلي غابرييل فالينت For transformative contributions to the theory of computation, including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing.
2011 جوديا بيارل[25] For fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.[26]
2012 سيلفيو ميكالي وشافريرا غولدفاسر For transformative work that laid the complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.[27]
2013 ليسلي لامبورت For fundamental contributions to the theory and practice of distributed and concurrent systems, notably the invention of concepts such as causality and logical clocks, safety and liveness, replicated state machines, and sequential consistency.[28][29]
2014 ميخائيل ستونبراكر For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems.[30]
2015 مارتن إدوارد هيلمان وويتفيلد ديفي For fundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman's groundbreaking 1976 paper, "New Directions in Cryptography,"[31] introduced the ideas of public-key cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularly-used security protocols on the internet today.[32]

مراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ أ ب Perlis, A. J. (1967). "The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems". Journal of the ACM. 14: 1. doi:10.1145/321371.321372. 
  2. ^ A.M. Turing Award Winners by Year
  3. ^ Wilkes, M. V. (1968). "Computers then and Now". Journal of the ACM. 15: 1. doi:10.1145/321439.321440. 
  4. ^ Hamming, R. W. (1969). "One Man's View of Computer Science". Journal of the ACM. 16: 3. doi:10.1145/321495.321497. 
  5. ^ Minsky, M. (1970). "Form and Content in Computer Science (1970 ACM turing lecture)". Journal of the ACM. 17 (2): 197. doi:10.1145/321574.321575. 
  6. ^ Wilkinson, J. H. (1971). "Some Comments from a Numerical Analyst". Journal of the ACM. 18 (2): 137. doi:10.1145/321637.321638. 
  7. ^ McCarthy, J. (1987). "Generality in artificial intelligence". Communications of the ACM. 30 (12): 1030. doi:10.1145/33447.33448. 
  8. ^ Dijkstra, E. W. (1972). "The humble programmer". Communications of the ACM. 15 (10): 859. doi:10.1145/355604.361591. 
  9. ^ Bachman, C. W. (1973). "The programmer as navigator". Communications of the ACM. 16 (11): 653. doi:10.1145/355611.362534. 
  10. ^ Knuth, D. E. (1974). "Computer programming as an art". Communications of the ACM. 17 (12): 667. doi:10.1145/361604.361612. 
  11. ^ Newell, A.؛ Simon, H. A. (1976). "Computer science as empirical inquiry: Symbols and search". Communications of the ACM. 19 (3): 113. doi:10.1145/360018.360022. 
  12. ^ Rabin, M. O.؛ Scott, D. (1959). "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems". IBM Journal of Research and Development. 3 (2): 114. doi:10.1147/rd.32.0114. 
  13. ^ Rabin, M. O. (1977). "Complexity of computations". Communications of the ACM. 20 (9): 625. doi:10.1145/359810.359816. 
  14. ^ Scott, D. S. (1977). "Logic and programming languages". Communications of the ACM. 20 (9): 634. doi:10.1145/359810.359826. 
  15. ^ Backus, J. (1978). "Can programming be liberated from the von Neumann style?: A functional style and its algebra of programs". Communications of the ACM. 21 (8): 613. doi:10.1145/359576.359579. 
  16. ^ Floyd, R. W. (1979). "The paradigms of programming". Communications of the ACM. 22 (8): 455. doi:10.1145/359138.359140. 
  17. ^ Iverson, K. E. (1980). "Notation as a tool of thought". Communications of the ACM. 23 (8): 444. doi:10.1145/358896.358899. 
  18. ^ Hoare, C. A. R. (1981). "The emperor's old clothes". Communications of the ACM. 24 (2): 75. doi:10.1145/358549.358561. 
  19. ^ Codd, E. F. (1982). "Relational database: A practical foundation for productivity". Communications of the ACM. 25 (2): 109. doi:10.1145/358396.358400. 
  20. ^ Cook, S. A. (1983). "An overview of computational complexity". Communications of the ACM. 26 (6): 400. doi:10.1145/358141.358144. 
  21. ^ Milner, R. (1993). "Elements of interaction: Turing award lecture". Communications of the ACM. 36: 78–89. doi:10.1145/151233.151240. 
  22. ^ Stearns, R. E. (1994). "Turing Award lecture: It's time to reconsider time". Communications of the ACM. 37 (11): 95. doi:10.1145/188280.188379. 
  23. ^ Reddy, R. (1996). "To dream the possible dream". Communications of the ACM. 39 (5): 105. doi:10.1145/229459.233436. 
  24. ^ 2007 Turing Award Winners Announced
  25. ^ Pearl, Judea (2011). "The Mechanization of Causal Inference: A "mini" Turing Test and Beyond" (mp4). ACM Turing award lectures. ACM. doi:10.1145/1283920.2351636 (غير نشط 2016-01-28). ISBN 978-1-4503-1049-9. 
  26. ^ "Judea Pearl". ACM. 
  27. ^ "Turing award 2012". ACM. 
  28. ^ "Turing award 2013". ACM. 
  29. ^ Lamport, L. (1978). "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system" (PDF). Communications of the ACM . 21 (7): 558–565. doi:10.1145/359545.359563. 
  30. ^ "Turing award 2014". ACM. 
  31. ^ Diffie, W.؛ Hellman, M. (1976). "New directions in cryptography" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 22 (6): 644–654. doi:10.1109/TIT.1976.1055638. 
  32. ^ "Cryptography Pioneers Receive 2015 ACM A.M. Turing Award". ACM. 

وصلات خارجية[عدل]


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