^Detective Comics (vol. 1) #411 (May 1971 "Editor's Note: In Arabic, 'The Demon's Head'! Literally, Al Ghul signifies a mischief-maker, and appears as the Ghoul of the Arabian Nights!"
^Batman Villains Secret Files & Origins #1 (1998). "Ra's al Ghul's true name is lost in the sands of time. Of all the Dark Knight's foes, 'The Ghoul's Head', as his name translates from Arabic, is perhaps the most dangerous."