فرانك نايت

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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فرانك نايت
فرانك هاينمان نايت
معلومات شخصية
الميلاد 7 نوفمبر 1885(1885-11-07)
بمقاطعة مكلين (إلينوي)
الوفاة 15 أبريل 1972 (86 سنة)
شيكاغو  تعديل قيمة خاصية مكان الوفاة (P20) في ويكي بيانات
الجنسية امريكي
عضو في الأكاديمية الأمريكية للفنون والعلوم  تعديل قيمة خاصية عضو في (P463) في ويكي بيانات
الحياة العملية
المدرسة الأم جامعة شيكاغو
المهنة اقتصادي،  وأستاذ جامعي،  وعالم اجتماع  تعديل قيمة خاصية المهنة (P106) في ويكي بيانات
اللغات المحكية أو المكتوبة اللغة الإنجليزية[1]  تعديل قيمة خاصية اللغات المحكية أو المكتوبة (P1412) في ويكي بيانات
مجال العمل اقتصاد  تعديل قيمة خاصية مجال العمل (P101) في ويكي بيانات
موظف في جامعة شيكاغو  تعديل قيمة خاصية رب العمل (P108) في ويكي بيانات
الجوائز

فرانك هاينمان نايت (7 نوفمبر 1885 – 15 أبريل 1972) هو اقتصادي أمريكي قضى معظم حياته المهنية في جامعة شيكاغو ، حيث أصبح واحدا من مؤسسي مدرسة شيكاغو. كان ميلتون فريدمان, جورج ستيجلر و جيمس بوكانان  من طلابه في شيكاغو.[2] [3]

الحياة المهنية[عدل]

ولد  في 1885 بمقاطعة مكلين (إلينوي) و حصل على دكتوراه سنة 1916.[4] درس في جامعة تينيسي و قضى معظم حياته الأكاديمية في جامعة شيكاغو. كان أحد الاقتصاديين الرائدين في العالم بعد أن قدم مساهمات كبيرة في العديد من المجالات كعلم الاقتصاد والاجتماع والفلسفة. وقد عرف بكتابه Risk Uncertainty and Profit. كان نايت مؤسسا ونائبا لرئيس مجتمع مونت بيليرين  لمفكرين الاقتصاديين.[5]

المنشورات الرئيسية[عدل]

  • "The Concept of Normal Price in Value and Distribution", 1917, QJE.
  • Risk, Uncertainty and Profit (pdf), 1921, (ردمك 978-0-9840614-2-6).
  • "Cost of Production and Price Over Long and Short Periods", 1921, Journal of Political Economy (JPE).
  • "Cassel's Theoretische Sozialökonomie", 1921, JPE.
  • "Ethics and the Economic Interpretation", 1922, QJE (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "The Ethics of Competition", 1923, QJE (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "Business Management: Science or Art?", 1923 Journal of Business.
  • "Some Fallacies in the Interpretation of Social Cost", 1924, QJE (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "The Limitations of Scientific Method in Economics", 1924, in Tugwell, editor, Trend of Economics (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "Fact and Metaphysics in Economic Psychology", 1925, AER (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "A Note on Professor Clark's Illustration of Marginal Productivity", 1925, JPE.
  • "Economic Psychology and the Value Problem", 1925, QJE.
  • "Economics at its Best: Review of Pigou", 1926, AER.
  • "Historical and Theoretical Issues in the Problem of Modern Capitalism", 1928, Journal of Econ & Business History (repr. in 1956 & 1999, I)
  • "A Suggestion for Simplifying the Statement of the General Theory of Price", 1928, JPE.
  • "Freedom as Fact and Criterion", 1929, Int J of Ethics
  • "Statics and Dynamics: Some queries regarding the mechanical analogy in economics", 1930, ZfN (repr. in 1956 & 1999, I)
  • "Professor Fisher's Interest Theory: A case in point", 1931, JPE.
  • "Modern Economic Society Further Considered", 1932, JPE.
  • "The Newer Economics and the Control of Economic Activity", 1932, JPE (repr. in 1999, I)
  • The Economic Organization, 1933.
  • "Capitalistic Production, Time and the Rate of Return", 1933, in Essays in Honor of Gustav Cassel (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "The Nature of Economic Science in Some Recent Discussion", 1934, AER.
  • "Social Science and the Political Trend", 1934, Univ of Toronto Quarterly
  • "Common-Sense of Political Economy: Wicksteed Reprinted", 1934, JPE (repr. in 1956)
  • The Ethics of Competition and Other Essays, 1935.
  • "The Ricardian Theory of Production and Distribution", 1935, Canadian JE (repr. in 1956 & 1999, I)
  • "A Comment on Machlup", 1935, JPE.
  • "Professor Hayek and the Theory of Investment", 1935, EJ.
  • "The Theory of Investment Once More: Mr. Boulding and the Austrians", 1935, QJE.
  • "Some Issues in the Economics of Stationary States", 1936, AER.
  • "The Place of Marginal Economics in a Collectivist System", 1936, AER.
  • "The Quantity of Capital and the Rate of Interest", 1936, JPE (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "Pragmatism and Social Action: Review of Dewey", 1936, Int J of Ethics
  • "Note on Dr. Lange's Interest Theory", 1937, RES.
  • "Unemployment: and Mr. Keynes's revolution in economic theory", 1937, Canadian JE (repr. in 1999, I)
  • "On the Theory of Capital: In reply to Mr. Kaldor", 1938, Econometrica.
  • "Bertrand Russell on Power", 1939, Ethics.
  • "The Ethics of Liberalism", 1939, Economica.
  • "Socialism: The Nature of the Problem", 1940, Ethics (repr. in 1999, II)
  • "'What is Truth' in Economics", 1940, JPE (repr. in 1956 & 1999, I)
  • "The Significance and Basic Postulates of Economics: a rejoinder", 1941, JPE
  • "Religion and Ethics in Modern Civilization", 1941, J of Liberal Religion
  • "The Meaning of Democracy: its politico-economic structure and ideals", 1941, J of Negro Education
  • "Social Science", 1941, Ethics (repr. in 1956)
  • "The Business Cycle, Interest and Money: A methodological approach", 1941, REStat (repr. in 1956 & 1999, II)
  • "Professor Mises and the Theory of Capital", 1941, Economica.
  • "The Role of the Individual in the Economic World of the Future", 1941, JPE.
  • "Anthropology and Economics", 1941, JPE.
  • "Science, Philosophy and Social Procedure", 1942, Ethics
  • "Fact and Value in Social Science", 1942, in Anshen, editor, Science and Man
  • "Some Notes on the Economic Interpretation of History", 1942, Studies in the History of Culture (repr. in 1999, II)
  • "Social Causation", 1943, American Journal of Sociology (repr. in 1956)
  • "Diminishing Returns Under Investment", 1944, JPE.
  • "Realism and Relevance in the Theory of Demand", 1944, JPE (repr. in 1999, II)
  • "The Rights of Man and Natural Law", 1944, Ethics (repr. in 1999, II)
  • "Human Nature and World Democracy", 1944, American J of Sociology.
  • "Economics, Political Science and Education", 1944, AER
  • The Economic Order and Religion, with T.W. Merriam, 1945.
  • "Immutable Law in Economics: Its reality and limitations", 1946, AER.
  • "The Sickness of Liberal Society", 1946, Ethics (repr. in 1999, II)
  • "Salvation by Science: The gospel according to Professor Lundberg", 1947, JPE (repr. in 1956)
  • Freedom and Reform: Essays in economics and social philosophy, 1947.
  • "Free Society: Its basic nature and problem", 1948, Philosophical Review (repr. in 1956)
  • "The Role of Principles in Economics and Politics", 1951, AER (repr. in 1956 & 1999, II)
  • "Institutionalism and Empiricism in Economics", 1952, AER.
  • On the History and Methods of Economics: Selected essays, 1956, (ردمك 978-0-226-44689-9).
  • Intelligence and Democratic Action, 1960.
  • "Methodology in Economics", 1961, Southern EJ
  • "Abstract Economics as Absolute Ethics", 1966, Ethics.
  • "Laissez Faire: Pro and con", 1967, JPE (repr. in 1999, II)
  • "The Case for Communism: From the Standpoint of an Ex-liberal." (published posthumously) in Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology, edited by Warren J. Samuels, archival supplement 2 (1991): 57–108.
  • Selected Essays by Frank H. Knight, Volume 1: "What is Truth" in Economics?, (ed. by Ross B. Emmett), 1999, (ردمك 978-0-226-44695-0)
  • Selected Essays by Frank H. Knight, Volume 2: Laissez Faire: Pro and Con, (ed. by Ross B. Emmett), 1999, (ردمك 978-0-226-44697-4)

المراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb12277945c — تاريخ الاطلاع: 10 أكتوبر 2015 — الرخصة: رخصة حرة
  2. ^ Ross B. Emmett (2010). The Elgar Companion to The Chicago School of Economics. Elgar. صفحة 238. ISBN 9781849806664. 
  3. ^ Hayek، Friedrich A. (2012). "The Transmission of the Ideals of Freedom". Econ Journal Watch. 9 (2): 163–69. 
  4. ^ http://www.chicagobooth.edu/assests/stigler/37.pdf
  5. ^ Alan Ebenstein (2014). Friedrich Hayek: A Biography. صفحة 146. ISBN 9781466886766. 

مصادر[عدل]

  • Burgin, Angus (November 2009). “The Radical Conservatism of Frank H. Knight,” Modern Intellectual History, 6:513–38.
  • Emmett, Ross B. (1999). "Introduction", in Selected Essays by Frank H. Knight, 2 vols., (ed. by Ross Emmett).
  • Emmett, Ross B. (2009). "Did the Chicago School Reject Frank Knight?", in Frank Knight and the Chicago School in American Economics, (ردمك 978-0-415-77500-7).
  • استشهاد فارغ (مساعدة) 
  • Kasper, Sherryl (2002). The Revival of Laissez-Faire in American Macroeconomic Theory: A Case Study of Its Pioneers. ch. 2.
  • Stigler, G. (1985). “Frank Hyneman Knight”, University of Chicago Press – Center for the Study of the Economy and the State, Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. 37.
  • White, Harrison C. (2002). Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

وصلات خارجية[عدل]