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مؤسسة تحدي الألفية

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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مؤسسة تحدي الألفية
تفاصيل الوكالة الحكومية
تأسست January 2004
الإدارة
موقع الويب www.mcc.gov
الدول الشركاء في شهر أيار (مايو) 2011. الدول التي تبدو باللون الأخضر لها اتفاقيات فعالة، بينما الدول التي تبدو باللون البرتقالي لها اتفاقيات في بداية فعاليتها

مؤسسة تحدي الألفية (MCC) is a bilateral United States foreign aid agency established by الكونغرس الأمريكي in 2004, applying a new philosophy toward foreign aid. It is an independent agency, separate from the وزارة الخارجية الأمريكية or الوكالة الأمريكية للتنمية الدولية.

الإنشاء[عدل]

في اجتماع "بنك التنمية للدول الأمريكية الذي عقد يوم 14 آذار (مارس) عام 2002، دعا الرئيس جورج دبليو بوش إلى ميثاق جديد خاص بالتنمية تساهم فيه كل من الدول الغنية والفقيرة. وتعهد بزيادة المساعدة الإنمائية بنسبة 50٪ بحلول السنة المالية 2006؛ ويشار هنا إلى أن قيمة هذه المساعدات قد تضاعفت في نهاية عام 2004، كما تضاعفت مرة أخرى عام 2010)[1] كانت هناك بعض الشكوك حول الأهداف المختلفة والمتضاربة أحياناً لبعض برامج التنمية الأخرى مثل الوكالة الأمريكية للتنمية الدولية (USAID)، ويعود سبب ذلك غالباً إلى الضغوط السياسية، وعدم تقديم تحسينات اقتصادية طويلةالأجل[بحاجة لمصدر] منحت مؤسسة تحدي الألفية إذناً عام 2004، بدعم من الحزب الجمهوري والحزب الديمقراطي مع الأخذ في اعتبارهم فرضية تعارض الأهداف. أما المبادئ التوجيهية لهذه المؤسسة فهي:

  • الاختيار التنافسي: يدرس مجلس المؤسسة أداء الدول التي تكون مرشحة للحصول على مساعدات حسب 17 مؤشراً من مؤشرات السياسات التي تمتاز بالشفافية والاستقلالية. ويتم اختيار الدول المؤهلة للاستفادة من المساعدات والمشاركة في الميثاق على أساس أدائها السياسي.
  • حلول تقودها الدول: تطلب مؤسسة تحدي الألفية من الدول المرشحة للاستفادة من المساعدات تحديد أولوياتها لتحقيق نمو اقتصادي مستدام والحد من الفقر. تقدم الدول اقتراحاتها للمؤسسة بعد إجراء مشاورات واسعة داخلية. تقوم فرق العمل في المؤسسة بمساعدة هذه الدول على تحسين برامجها.
  • Country-led implementation: MCC administers the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA). When a country is awarded a compact, it sets up its own local MCA accountable entity to manage and oversee all aspects of implementation. Monitoring of funds is rigorous and transparent, often through independent fiscal agents.[2]

القيادة[عدل]

أول مدير تنفيذي لمؤسسة تحدي الألفية كان السيد "بول أبلغارث"، وهو رجل أعمال في القطاع الخاص، ذو خبرة في إدارة صناديق الاستثمار في الأسواق الناشئة. وقد أعقبه جون دانيلوفيتش، وهو رجل أعمال في القطاع الخاص، شغل منصب سفير الولايات المتحدة لدى كوستاريكا في الفترة 2001-2004 ثم سفير الولايات المتحدة لدى البرازيل[3]. في 20 نوفمبر 2009، صادق مجلس الشيوخ على تعيين رجل الأعمال دانيال جورج يوهانيس، وهو أمريكي من أصل أثيوبي مديراً جديداً للمؤسسة[4].

يتكون مجلس إدارة المؤسسة من ممثلين، منهم المدير التنفيذي لمؤسسة تحدي الألفية، ووزيرة الخارجية الأمريكية وهي رئيس المجلس، ووزير الخزانة وهو نائب الرئيس، ومدير الوكالة الأمريكية للتنمية الدولية، والممثل التجاري للولايات المتحدة وغيرهم من القطاع الخاص أو الهيئات ذات الصلة بالتنمية[5][6].

Selection indicators[عدل]

A country is considered eligible for a compact (aid grant) if its score on 17 indicators exceeds the median score of its peer group. All 17 indicators are compiled by third parties with no connection to MCC; MCC grants are made without politics entering the equation. This is perhaps the most innovative aspect of MCC, as previous foreign aid missions were plagued by political considerations. The focus of the MCC is to promote نمو اقتصادي in the recipient countries. The program emphasizes good economic policies in recipient countries. The Bush administration has stated its belief that development aid works better in countries with good economic policies, such as سوق حر and low corruption.[بحاجة لمصدر]

The indicators are:[7]

Indicator Category Source
Civil Liberties Ruling Justly بيت الحرية
Political Rights Ruling Justly Freedom House
Voice and Accountability Ruling Justly World Bank Institute
Government Effectiveness Ruling Justly World Bank Institute
Rule of Law Ruling Justly World Bank Institute
Control of Corruption Ruling Justly World Bank Institute
Immunization Rate Investing in People منظمة الصحة العالمية
Public Expenditure on Health Investing in People منظمة الصحة العالمية
Girls' Primary Education Completion Rate Investing in People يونسكو
Public Expenditure on Primary Education Investing in People UNESCO and national sources
Natural Resource Management Investing in People CIESIN/Yale
Inflation Rate Economic Freedom صندوق النقد الدولي WEO
Trade Policy Economic Freedom Heritage Foundation
Land Rights and Access index Economic Freedom IFAD / IFC
Regulatory Quality Economic Freedom World Bank Institute
Fiscal Policy Economic Freedom national sources, cross-checked with IMF WEO
Business Start-up Economic Freedom مؤسسة التمويل الدولية

These are only criteria for eligibility. An eligible country must apply for a grant with a specific project in mind. The criteria has been updated as of 2012.[8]

Countries and country tools[عدل]

Compact countries Threshold countries
 Armenia  Albania
 Benin  Burkina Faso
 Burkina Faso  Guyana
 Cape Verde  Jordan
 El Salvador  Indonesia
 Georgia  Kenya
 Ghana  Kyrgyzstan
 Honduras  Liberia
 Indonesia  Malawi
 Jordan  Moldova
 Lesotho  Niger
 Madagascar  Paraguay
 Malawi  Peru
 Mali  Philippines
 Moldova  Rwanda
 Mongolia
 Morocco
 Mozambique
 Namibia  ساو تومي وبرينسيب
 Nicaragua  Tanzania
 Philippines  Timor Leste
 Senegal  Uganda
 Tanzania  Ukraine
 Vanuatu  Zambia

MCC compacts and thresholds programs in recipient countries[عدل]

MCC signs either a compact or a threshold agreement with a partner country. A compact is awarded if the country scores highly on the selection criteria indicators. If the country scores poorly but has a positive, upward trend on the selection criteria, it can still be eligible for a smaller grant, called a threshold program.

MCC requires that each partner government creates a special purpose legal entity that will be accountable for implementing the compact program.

Eligible countries[عدل]

In the first year (2004), 17 countries were made eligible for an MCC grant: أرمينيا, بنين, بوليفيا, الرأس الأخضر, السلفادور, جورجيا, غانا, هندوراس, ليسوتو, مدغشقر, مالي, منغوليا, المغرب, موزمبيق, نيكاراغوا, السنغال, سريلانكا, and فانواتو. Madagascar and Honduras were the first countries to receive actual funding from the MCA. On June 16, 2006, غامبيا was suspended from eligibility, citing deterioration in 8 of the 16 criteria categories.[9] مالي was approved in October 2006 for a $461 million program to develop modern irrigation systems and an industrial park.[10] الأردن was granted full compact eligibility, despite objections from Freedom House for its lack of full political and civil rights.[11] MPs in أوغندا from the opposition party hailed their country's rejection from full compact status, demanding instead a stronger effort in stopping the corruption that disqualified their country.[12] In June 2007, MCA eligible countries in Africa held a meeting in أكرا to discuss their experiences in the program.[13] The country of مالاوي qualified for a full compact in 2007, while موريتانيا became threshold eligible.[14]

Threshold eligible[عدل]

Several countries were chosen in 2004 for a new part of the program called Threshold Program Assistance, which are smaller compacts used to assist a country close to meeting account eligibility to become eligible for a full program.[15] الأردن received a Threshold program aimed at democracy and trade totaling $25 million.[16] اليمن was previously eligible for a threshold agreement, but was suspended after their indicators fell too low to qualify. But having successfully competed a democratic election and various economic reforms, the Millennium Challenge Corporation has once again made Yemen eligible for a threshold agreement.[17] On December 12, 2007, the MCC Board selected مالاوي for a compact and موريتانيا for a threshold agreement, as well as allowing ألبانيا, باراغواي, and زامبيا to submit a first ever second stage threshold agreement.[18] In 2007 the American ambassador to سوازيلاند highlighted the progress on the MCC indicators over the last few years and encouraged the country to work toward eligibility.[19]

A full listing of MCC partner countries can be found at http://www.mcc.gov/pages/countries. MCC's portfolio focuses mostly on African nations.

Funding[عدل]

الكونغرس الأمريكي has consistently provided less funding for the program than the president has requested. In سنة مالية 2004, US$650 million were provided for the program, with an increase up to $1.5 billion the next year.[20] For fiscal year 2007, $2 billion were provided, a 14% increase over the previous year but still under the $3 billion target.[21] Again for fiscal year 2008, less funding will be provided than was hoped for, and only $1.2 billion was budgeted; the CEO of the MCC commented that it would undercut the program's efforts. Congress declined to re-authorize the program, which technically was not needed since the program had been authorized already, but also since there was argument over the authorization language.[22] In discussions of the FY 2009 budget, the United States Senate proposed that only half of the money needed for a compact be provided up front, as opposed to full funding for each one provident in advance, which officials at the corporation insist would be a "large step backward" causing too little aid to make an impact on recipient countries.[23] Senator Richard Lugar, the author of the amendment, responded that more "realistic" funding levels allowed for more compacts, thus spreading the "MCC effect".[24] The amendment did not make it into the final bill.[25] President Bush's FY 2008 budget requested $2.225 billion, the first time since the program's inception that the amount was not $3 billion, and enough money for five compacts, several threshold agreements and administrative funding.[26]

Reception and impact[عدل]

Studies by groups such as the conservative Heritage Foundation in the United States have shown that many developing countries that have received foreign aid have seen their per capita income fall or stagnate over the last 40 years. The Heritage Foundation has consistently supported the MCC's approach, which has used their trade measure from the مؤشر الحرية الاقتصادية.[27] In April 2005, the United States Government Accountability Office issued a favorable report about the work of the MCC and its work thus far.[28] The Program Assessment Rating Tool, or PART, which reviews the efficiency and results produced by US government programs, was scheduled to be reviewed in 2007.[29] A study in 2006 looking at the "MCC effect" estimated that potential recipient countries improved 25% more on MCA's criteria than other countries, after controlling for time-trends.[30] The World Policy Council, headed by Ambassador Horace Dawson and مجلس الشيوخ الأمريكي Edward Brooke, recognizes the MCC as the most recent and most promising program in its area, and recommended that the Bush administration and the Congressional Black Caucus focus on full funding and an accelerated pace of spending.[31] Doing Business 2007 cited the Millennium Challenge Accounts as a catalyst for reforms underway in 13 countries.[32] Also, بيت الحرية, an organization that monitors the level of freedom in the world, released subcategories for the first time since it was being used as part of the MCC's measurements to allow for finer distinctions in their ratings.[33] Also, the number of days it takes to start a business in low and low-middle income countries has decreased significantly since 2002, which is one of the factors the accounts measure since rapid business registration is thought to increase economic activity.[34]

Some critics have charged that the program uses indicators by conservative groups such as the Heritage Foundation and is therefore biased toward free market economics and reimposing American imperialism on the Global South.[35][36][37][38] The program is said to have resulted in countries receiving less funding from other US government development organizations and not more. Some development agencies have felt frozen out of the process since the compact programs are designed primarily by the country involved.[39] Implementation has been difficult in Armenia, and concern about its effectiveness has been expressed.[40]

روابط خارجية[عدل]

المراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ "The Millennium Challenge Accountaccessdat/7245002.stm". 
  2. ^ "About MCC". 
  3. ^ "About Millennium Challenge Corporation". MCC. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2007-09-26. 
  4. ^ "U.S. Senate Confirms Daniel W. Yohannes as CEO of Millennium Challenge Corporation". MCC. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-11-21. [وصلة مكسورة]
  5. ^ Millennium Challenge Corporation
  6. ^ http://www.mcc.gov/pages/about
  7. ^ "MCC Selection indicators". MCC Selection indicators. 
  8. ^ https://www.mcc.gov/documents/reports/report-2011001066201-fy12-selection-criteria.pdf
  9. ^ "The Gambia Suspended from Participation in MCC Compact Program". Millennium Challenge Corporation. June 16, 2006. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2006-09-02. 
  10. ^ Charles W. Corey (October 26, 2006). "Millennium Challenge Corporation approves $461 million for Mali". Relief Web. 
  11. ^ "Millennium Challenge Corporation Should Hold Countries to Higher Standards of Democratic Governance". Freedom House. November 2, 2006. 
  12. ^ Kevin J. Kelley (November 14, 2006). "East Africa: Graft Costs Uganda And Kenya Millions in U.S. Aid". The East African. 
  13. ^ "Meeting of MCA Eligible Countries in Africa". Business Ghana. June 11, 2007. 
  14. ^ "Millennium Challenge Corporation Reinforces Support for Africa: Malawi and Mauritania Selected to Participate". Millennium Challenge Corporation. December 12, 2007. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2008-01-15. 
  15. ^ "Millennium Challenge Corporation Names Seven Countries Eligible for Threshold Program" (PDF). Millennium Challenge Corporation. September 30, 2004. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2006-09-03. 
  16. ^ "US grants Jordan 25 million dollars to finance reforms". dpa German Press Agency. October 17, 2006. [وصلة مكسورة]
  17. ^ "Yemen’s Eligibility for Assistance Reinstated by Millennium Challenge Corporation Board". United States Embassy in Yemen. February 15, 2007. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2007-08-15. 
  18. ^ "Millennium Challenge Corporation Reinforces Support for Africa: Malawi and Mauritania Selected to Participate". Millennium Challenge Corporation. December 12, 2007. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2007-12-16. 
  19. ^ Timothy Simelane (December 14, 2007). "Parker sees hope for Swazi economy". The Swazi Observer. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2008-01-07. 
  20. ^ "Nuts and Bolts of Bill". The Washington Post. December 7, 2006. 
  21. ^ "Millennium Challenge Corporation Statement on Fiscal Year 2007 House Appropriation". Millennium Challenge Corporation. June 9, 2006. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2006-09-02. 
  22. ^ Sheila Herrling (December 11, 2006). "MCA Reauthorization Bill Killed". MCA Monitor Blog. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2006-12-15. 
  23. ^ Celia W. Dugger (December 7, 2007). "U.S. Agency’s Slow Pace Endangers Foreign Aid". The New York Times. 
  24. ^ Richard G. Lugar (December 11, 2007). "Foreign Aid Strategies". The New York Times. 
  25. ^ Megan Harris (January 22, 2008). "Analysis: Promising aid program faces cuts". UPI. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2008-02-09. 
  26. ^ "MCC FY 2009 Budget Request Supports Continued U.S. Commitment to Reduce Poverty" (PDF). Millennium Challenge Corporation. February 4, 2008. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2008-04-09. 
  27. ^ Paolo Pasicolan and Sara J. Fitzgerald (October 18, 2002). "The Millennium Challenge Account: Linking Aid with Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. 
  28. ^ "Progress Made on Key Challenges in First Year" (PDF). Government Accountability Office. April 27, 2005. 
  29. ^ "Assessing Program Performance Using the Part". Office of Management and Budget. March 20, 2007. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2007-03-14. 
  30. ^ Doug Johnson, Tristan Zajonc (April 11, 2006). "Can Foreign Aid Create an Incentive for Good Governance? Evidence from the Millennium Challenge Corporation". John F. Kennedy School of Government. 
  31. ^ Dawson، Horace؛ Edward Brooke, Henry Ponder, Vinton R. Anderson, Bobby William Austin, Ron Dellums, Kenton Keith, Huel D. Perkins, Charles Rangel, Clathan McClain Ross, and Cornel West. The Centenary Report Of The [[Alpha Phi Alpha]] World Policy Council (نسق المستندات المنقولة). Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 January 2010.  Wikilink embedded in URL title (مساعدة)
  32. ^ "Annual Report of International Finance Corporation Highlights Reform Incentives Created by Millennium Challenge Corporation". Millennium Challenge Corporation. September 6, 2006. تمت أرشفته من الأصل على 2006-09-29. 
  33. ^ "Freedom House Releases Subcategory and Aggregate Scores for Freedom in the World". Freedom House. September 28, 2006. 
  34. ^ "Millennium Challenge Corporation Releases 2007 Country Data Measuring Performance on 16 Benchmark Indicators; MCA Eligibility Creating Incentives for Policy Reform in Countries". Millennium Challenge Corporation. October 16, 2006. [وصلة مكسورة]
  35. ^ Mark Engler (October 30, 2006). "Calling Bad Business Good". TomPaine.com. 
  36. ^ Mawdsley, Emma, 2007, "The Millennium Challenge Account: Neo-liberalism, poverty and security", Review of International Political Economy, 14(3), pp.487-509
  37. ^ Carbone, M., 2004, “The Millennium Challenge Account: A Marginal Revolution in US Foreign Aid Policy”, Review of African Political Economy, 31(101), pp.536-542
  38. ^ Soederberg, Susanne, 2004, “American empire and ‘excluded states’: the Millennium Challenge Account and the Shift to pre-emptive development”, Third World Quarterly, 35(2), pp.279-302
  39. ^ Tim Starks (June 18, 2007). "A Slouching Millennium Challenge". Congressional Quarterly. 
  40. ^ "SOLUTION TO PROBLEM OF UNEQUAL DEVELOPMENT OF YEREVAN AND RURAL AREAS MOST IMPORTANT TASK". ARKA News Agency. September 18, 2006. [وصلة مكسورة]