مجالس الدول التشريعية

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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لا يزال النص الموجود في هذه الصفحة في مرحلة الترجمة من الإنجليزية إلى العربية. إذا كنت تعرف اللغة الإنجليزية، لا تتردد في الترجمة. (أبريل 2019)

هذه قائمة بالمجالس التشريعية حسب البلد. يعتبر مصطلح "المجالس التشريعية" اسم عام للبرلمانات والمجالس الوطنية التي تكون بمثابة جلسات عامة للجان والممثلين الديمقراطيين والتي لديها القدرة على التشريع. جميع الكيانات المدرجة في قائمة الدول مدرجة في هذه القائمة.

أسماء المجالس التشريعية[عدل]

اُدرجت اسما المجالس التشريعية باللغة الإنجليزية أو باللغة  (الأكثر استخداما) في الدولة (أو الاسم الرسمي باللغة الأكثر انتشارًا بعد الإنجليزية في البلدان حيث تكون اللغة الإنجليزية اللغة الأم لغالبية السكان).

قائمة المجالس التشريعية[عدل]

الهيئات التشريعية الفوق وطنية[عدل]

الهيئة اسم المجلس مستوى المجلس الفترة

(بالسنة)

نظام التصويت عدد المقاعد عدد السكان لكل مقعد الناتج المحلي الإجمالي لكل مقعد (بالدولار الأمريكي)
 الاتحاد الأوروبي البرلمان الأوروبي[1] غرفة واحدة 5 تمثيل القائمة المفتوحة والمغلقة النسبية، وتحويل التصويت الواحد (في أيرلندا) 751 667,761 20,983
الاتحاد الافريقي البرلمان الافريقي غرفة واحدة 5 غير مباشر (بواسطة 47 من 53 مجلس تشريعي وطني) 265 3,974,098.11 14.180
Flag of the Central American Integration System.svg نظام التكامل لأمريكا الوسطى برلمان أمريكا الوسطى غرفة واحدة يعتمد على البلد مباشر وعبر التمثيل النسبي 120 426,274.46 2,651.175
قالب:بيانات بلد Mercosur برلمان ميركوسور برلمان بغرفة واحدة 5 مباشر وغير مباشر (يعتمد على التمثيل النسبي للبلدان) 122 1,588,889 16.228
مجموعة دول أمريكا اللاتينية والكاريبي برلمان أمريكا اللاتينية غرفة واحدة 5 مباشر 276 ~ ~
 جامعة الدول العربية البرلمان العربي غرفة واحدة 68

اللهيئات التشريعية للدول ذات السيادة (الأعضاء والدول المراقبة في الأمم المتحدة)[عدل]

البلد العضو أو المراقب في الأمم المتحدة الاسم العام للهيئة التشريعية اسم المجلس مستوى المجلس الفترة

(بالسنة)

نظام التصويت عدد المقاعد عدد السكان لكل مقعد الناتج المحلي الإجمالي لكل مقعد (بالدولار الأمريكي)
 أفغانستان الجمعية الوطنية مجلس الشعب (ولسي جرګه Wolesi Jirga) منخفض 5 تصويت مفرد غير قابل للنقل[2] 249 122,168 119
مجلس الشيوخ (مشرانوجرګه Meshrano Jirga) مرتفع 3 و 4 و 5 تنتخبه مجالس المقاطعات والمحافظات ويعينه الرئيس 102 298,234 291
 ألبانيا البرلمان (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë) غرفة واحدة 4 قائمة مغلقة بنظام التمثيل النسبي باستخدام طريقة هوندت حسب المقاطعة بعتبة 3% 140 20,226 177
 الجزائر البرلمان المجلس الشعبي الوطني أدتى 6 قائمة مفتوحة بنظام التمثيل النسبي باستخدام طريقة أكبر باقي حسب الولاية 462 80,303 439
مجلس الأمة أعلى 5 Elected by popular wilaya assemblies and communal people's assemblies, and appointed by the President 144 257,638 1,830
 أندورا المجلس العام (Consell General de les Valls) Unicameral 4 Parallel voting: Closed list proportional representation with the largest remainder method nationwide and block vote by parish 28 2,789 161
 أنغولا الجمعية الوطنية (Assembleia Nacional) Unicameral 4 Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method nationwide and by province 220 84,081 525
 أنتيغوا وباربودا البرلمان[3] House of Representatives Lower 5 First-past-the-post 19 4,305 82
Senate Upper 5 Appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition 17 4,811 92
 الأرجنتين المجلس الوطني للأرجنتين (Congreso de la Nación Argentina) Chamber of Deputies of the Nation (Cámara de Diputados de la Nación) Lower 4 قائمة مغلقة بنظام التمثيل النسبي باستخدام طريقة هوندت حسب المحافظة بعتبة 3% 257 156,097 2,787
Senate of the Nation (Senado de la Nación) أعلى 6 Partial block voting by province 72 557,181 9,950
 أرمينيا الجمعية الوطنية (Ազգային Ժողով) غرفة واحدة 5 تصويت موازي: قائمة مغلقة بنظام التمثيل النسبي في دائرة انتخابية على مستوى البلاد بعتبة 5%، والفوز للأكثر أصواتاً 131 24,902 136
 أستراليا البرلمان الأسترالي مجلس النواب أدنى 3 Instant-runoff voting 150 154,200 6,096
Senate أعلى 6 تصويت مفرد قابل للتحويل تبعاً للولاية أو الإقليم 76 304,342 12,032
 النمسا البرلمان النمساوي المجلس الوطني (Nationalrat) أدنى 5 قائمة مفتوحة بنظام التمثيل النسبي باستخدام طريقة هوندت في الدوائر الانتخابية ذات العتبات البالغة نسبتها 4% 183 43,895 1,923
Federal Council (Bundesrat) Upper 5 and 6 Elected by state legislatures 62 129,563 5,677
 أذربيجان الجمعية الوطنية (Milli Məclis) Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post 125 73,320 744
باهاماس Bahamas, The البرلمان House of Assembly Lower 5 First-past-the-post 38 9,326 283
Senate Upper 5 Appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition 16 22,103 674
 البحرين الجمعية الوطنية Council of Representatives (Majlis an-nuwab) Lower 4 Two-round system 40 30,864 777
Consultative Council (Majlis al-shura) Upper 4 Appointed by the king 40 30,864 777
 بنغلاديش National Parliament (জাতীয় সংসদ Jatiyo Sangsad) Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post 350 466,909 818
 باربادوس Parliament House of Assembly Lower 5 First-past-the-post 30 9,486 216
Senate Upper 5 Appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition 21 13,551 309
 روسيا البيضاء National Assembly (Нацыянальны сход Nacyjanaĺny schod) House of Representatives (Палата прадстаўнікоў Palata pradstaŭnikoŭ) Lower 4 Two-round system 110 85,997 1,288
Council of the Republic (Савет Рэспублікі Saviet Respubliki) Upper 4 Elected by regional councils, and appointed by the President 64 147,773 2,215
 بلجيكا Federal Parliament (Federaal Parlement / Parlement fédéral / Föderales Parlament) Chamber of Representatives

(Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers / Chambre des Représentants / Abgeordnetenkammer)

Lower 5 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by province with a 5% threshold 150 74,000 2,897
Senate (Senaat / Sénat / Senat) Upper 5 Elected by community and regional parliaments 60 185,000 7,242
 بليز National Assembly House of Representatives Lower 5 First-past-the-post 31 10,748 90
Senate Upper 5 Appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition 12 27,766 233
 بنين National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) Unicameral 4 Proportional representation with the largest remainder method in constituencies 83 115,648 176
 بوتان Parliament of Bhutan[4] National Assembly (རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཚོགས་འདུ། Gyelyong Tshogdu) Lower 5 First-past-the-post 47 15,072 91
National Council (རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཚོགས་སྡེ། Gyelyong Tshogde) Upper 4 First-past-the-post, and appointed by the king 25 28,337 171
 
 بوليفياBolivia
Plurinational Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional) Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) Lower 5 Closed list mixed-member proportional representation: Proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by department and first-past-the-post 130 83,905 391
Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) Upper 5 Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by department 36 302,993 1,414
 البوسنة والهرسكBosnia and Herzegovina Parliamentary Assembly (Parlamentarna skupština / Парламентарна скупштина) House of Representatives (Predstavnički dom / Zastupnički dom / Представнички дом) Lower 4 Open list proportional representation with the largest remainder method in constituencies 42 91,422 753
House of Peoples (Dom naroda / Дом народa) Upper 4 Serbs elected by the National Assembly (Republika Srpska) for the Republic of Srpska, and Bosniaks and Croats elected by the House of Peoples of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 15 255,982 2,109
 بوتسوانا برلمان بوتسوانا الجمعية الوطنية Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post, and appointed by the President 63 32,211 471
 البرازيلBrazil National Congress (Congresso Nacional) Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) Lower 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by state 513 371,798 4,471
Federal Senate (Senado Federal) Upper 8 Partial block voting by state 81 2,354,724 28,320
 برونايBrunei Legislative Council (Majlis Mesyuarat) Unicameral no timeframe Appointed by the Sultan 36 11,355 582
 بلغارياBulgaria National Assembly (Народно събрание Narodno sabranie) Unicameral 4 Closed list proportional representation with the largest remainder method by constituency with a 4% threshold 240 30,685 420
 بوركينا فاسوBurkina Faso National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) Unicameral 5 Proportional representation with the D'Hondt method nationwide and in constituencies 127 126,281 198
 بورونديBurundi Parliament National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Lower 5 Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies with a 2% threshold 121 74,570 43
Senate (Sénat) Upper 5 Elected by the communal councils 43 179,577 105
 كمبودياCambodia Parliament

(សភាតំណាងរាស្ត្រ ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា)

National Assembly (រដ្ឋសភាជាតិ; Rotsaphea) Lower 5 Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by province 123 108,852 272
Senate (ព្រឹទ្ធសភា; Protsaphea) Upper 6[5] Appointed by the monarch, elected by the National Assembly and commune councils 61 219,490 548
 الكاميرونCameroon Parliament National Assembly Lower 5 First-past-the-post and Block vote: If no list obtains an absolute majority, the one with the highest number of votes is allocated half of the seats; the remainder is allocated to the other best-placed lists through proportional representation 180 97,021 262
Senate Upper 5 Elected by municipal councils, and appointed by the president 100 174,638 472
 كنداCanada Parliament (Parlement) House of Commons (Chambre des communes) Lower 4 years, unless elections are called earlier First-past-the-post voting 338 104,571 5,214
Senate (Sénat) Upper Until age 75, or resigns. Appointed by the governor general on the advice of the Prime Minister 105 318,825 13,296
 الرأس الأخضرCape Verde National Assembly (Asembleia Nacional) Unicameral 5 Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies 72 4,990 20
 جمهورية أفريقيا الوسطىCentral African Republic National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Unicameral 5 Two-round system 100 38,951 36
 تشادChad

National Assembly (Assemblée nationale)

Unicameral 4 Block voting: If no list obtains an absolute majority, the seats are allocated through proportional representation 155 66,640 126
 تشيليChile National Congress (Congreso Nacional) Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) Lower 4 Binomial voting system (To become open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies by the next election) 120 145,021 2,496
Senate of the Republic (Senado de la República) Upper 8 Binomial voting system 38 457,963 7,885
 People's Republic of ChinaPeople's Republic of China National People's Congress (全国人民代表大会 Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì)[6] Unicameral 5 Elected by municipal, regional and provincial congresses, and People's Liberation Army 2,987 448,518 3,783
 كولومبياColombia Congress (Congreso) Chamber of Representatives (Cámara de Representantes) Lower 4 Open or closed list proportional representation (depending on the political party) with the D'Hondt method by state 166 279,556 2,843
Senate (Senado) Upper 4 Open or closed list proportional representation (depending on the political party) with the D'Hondt method nationwide with a 3% threshold 102 454,964 4,627
 جزر القمرComoros Assembly of the Union (Assemblée de la Union) Unicameral 5 Two-round system, and elected by the local assemblies 33 24,181 25
جمهورية الكونغو الديمقراطية Congo, Democratic Republic of the Parliament National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Lower 5 Parallel voting: Open list proportional representation with the largest remainder method in constituencies and first-past-the-post voting 500 143,425 50
Senate (Sénat) Upper 5 Elected by the provincial assemblies 108 664,008 233
جمهورية الكونغو Congo, Republic of the Parliament (Parlement) National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Lower 5 Two-round system 153 28,537 119
Senate (Sénat) Upper 5 Elected by district, local, and regional councils 52 83,966 350
 كوستاريكا Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa) Unicameral 4 Closed list proportional representation with the largest remainder method by province 57 75,468 965
 كرواتياCroatia Croatian Assembly (Hrvatski sabor) Unicameral 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies with a 5% threshold 151 28,414 532
 كوباCuba National Assembly of People's Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular) Unicameral 5 Popular vote and approval by special candidacy commissions 612 18,308 185
 قبرصCyprus House of Representatives (Βουλή των Αντιπροσώπων Vouli Antiprosópon / Temsilciler Meclisi)[7] Unicameral 5 Open list proportional representation with the largest remainder method by constituency 59 18,632 402
 جمهورية التشيكCzech Republic Parliament of the Czech Republic (Parlament České republiky) Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) Lower 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by region with a 5% threshold 200 52,811 1,424
Senate (Senát) Upper 6 Two-round system (staggered elections) 81 130,397 3,517
 الدنماركDenmark Parliament (Folketing) Unicameral 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies with a 2% threshold 179 30,969 1,154
 جيبوتيDjibouti National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Unicameral 5 Block vote and closed list proportional representation by constituencies: The list obtaining an absolute or relative majority of votes is allocated 80% of the seats; the remainder is allocated to the other best-placed lists which obtained at least 10% of the valid votes through proportional representation; if no other list obtains 10% of the valid votes, the remaining seats will be allocated to the party which won the majority or relative majority of the valid votes 65 12,587 35
 دومينيكاDominica House of Assembly Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post, and appointed by the President 21 3,394 46
 جمهورية الدومينيكانDominican Republic الكونغرس الوطني (Congreso Nacional) Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) Lower 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by province and nationwide with a 1% threshold for the nationwide seats 183 51,520 510
Senate (Senado) Upper 4 First-past-the-post 32 293,088 2,918
 تيمور الشرقيةEast Timor National Parliament (Parlamento Nacional) Unicameral 5 Closed list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method nationwide with a 3% threshold 65 16,408 146
 الإكوادورEcuador National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) Unicameral 4 Parallel voting: Closed list proportional representation in a nationwide constituency and first-past-the-post 124 116,802 1,028
 مصرEgypt Parliament House of Representatives (مجلس النواب Majilis Al-Nuwab) Unicameral 5 Parallel voting: First-past-the-post, block vote, and appointed by the President 596 150,983 1,021
 السلفادورEl Salvador Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa) Unicameral 3 Open list proportional representation with the largest remainder method by department and nationwide 84 68,382 530
 غينيا الاستوائيةEquatorial Guinea Parliament of Equatorial Guinea Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de los Diputados) Lower 5 Closed list proportional representation in constituencies with a 10% threshold 100 16,220 172
Senate Upper Closed list proportional representation with a 10% threshold, and appointed by the President 70 23,171 246
 إريترياEritrea National Assembly (Hagerawi Baito) Unicameral 5 Popular vote 104 50,878 38
 إستونياEstonia State Assembly (Riigikogu) Unicameral 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies with a 5% threshold 101 12,814 270
 إثيوبياEthiopia Parliament House of Peoples' Representatives

(የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት Yehizbtewekayoch Mekir Bet)

Lower 5 First-past-the-post 547 135,134 173
House of Federation (የፌዴሬሽን ምክር ቤት Yefedereshn Mekir Bet) Upper 5 Elected by State Councils 112 659,986 847
 ولايات ميكرونيسيا المتحدةFederated States of Micronesia Congress Unicameral 4 First-past-the-post 14 7,642 25
 فيجيFiji Parliament Unicameral 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method nationwide with a 5% threshold 50 16,745 82
 فنلنداFinland Parliament (Eduskunta)[8] Unicameral 4 Open list proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies, and first-past-the-post for Åland's lone seat 200 25,900 978
 فرنساFrance Parliament (Parlement) National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Lower 5 Two-round system 577 113,258 3,843
Senate (Sénat) Upper 6 Elected indirectly by officials including regional councilors, department councilors, mayors, city councilors, and members of the National Assembly 348 187,787 6,373
 الغابونGabon Parliament (Parlement) National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Lower 5 First-past-the-post, and appointed by the President 121 12,190 203
Senate (Sénat) Upper 6 Indirectly elected by local and départemental councillors 102 14,460 240
 غامبياGambia National Assembly Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post, and appointed by the President 53 25,673 65
 جورجياGeorgia Parliament of Georgia (საქართველოს პარლამენტი Sak'art'velos Parlamenti) Unicameral 4 Parallel voting: Closed list proportional representation in a nationwide constituency with a 5% threshold, and first-past-the-post 150 29,794 163
 ألمانياGermany Federal Diet (Bundestag) N/A (unofficially Lower house) 4 Closed list mixed-member proportional representation with the D'Hondt method by state with a 5% threshold, and first-past-the-post 630 128,500 4,998
Federal Council (Bundesrat) N/A (unofficially Upper house) dependant on individual state elections Delegated from state governments 69 1,185,501 44,914
 غاناGhana Parliament Unicameral 4 First-past-the-post 228 106,286 328
 اليونانGreece Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων Vouli ton Ellinon) Unicameral 4 Open list reinforced proportional representation with the D'Hondt method in constituencies with a 3% threshold 300 35,958 981
 غريناداGrenada Parliament House of Representatives Lower 5 First-past-the-post 15 7,333 96
Senate Upper 5 appointed by the government and by the leader of opposition 13 8,461 111
 غواتيمالاGuatemala Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la República) Unicameral 4 proportional closed list 158 80,557 472
 غينياGuinea National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Unicameral 5 proportional closed list 114 88,227 100
 غينيا بيساوGuinea-Bissau National People's Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular) Unicameral 4 proportional closed list 100 13,454 19
 غياناGuyana National Assembly Unicameral 5 popular vote and appointed by the President 65 11,583 88
 هايتيHaiti National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés) Lower 4 proportional 119 98,181 124
Senate (Sénat) Upper 6 30 323,997 412
 هندوراسHonduras National Congress (Congreso Nacional) Unicameral 4 proportional open list 128 58,823 278
 المجرHungary National Assembly (Országgyűlés) Unicameral 4 proportional open list

and Scorporo

199 25,860 506
 آيسلنداIceland Assembly of All (Alþingi) Unicameral 4 proportional mixed 63 5,080 196
 الهندIndia Parliament (संसद Sansad) House of the People (लोक सभा Lok Sabha) Lower 5 popular vote and appointed by the President 545 2,192,379 8,075
Council of States (राज्य सभा Rajya Sabha) Upper 6 appointed by the President and elected members of the states and territories 245 4,847,900 17,831
 إندونيسياIndonesia People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat) People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat) Lower 5 proportional open list 560 423,972 2,008
Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah) Upper 5 Single non-transferable vote 132 1,798,669 8,520
 إيرانIran

Islamic Consultative Assembly (مجلس شورای إسلامی Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī)

Unicameral 4 popular vote 290 259,136 3,414
 العراقIraq Council of Representatives of Iraq (مجلس النواب العراقي Majlis Al-Niwab Al-Iraqi) Unicameral 4 proportional open list 325 95,782 392
جمهورية أيرلندا Ireland Parliament (Oireachtas) House of Representatives of Ireland (Dáil Éireann) Lower 5 Proportional Representation Single Transferable Vote 166 27,640 1,093
Senate of Ireland (Seanad Éireann) Upper 5 appointed by the prime minister and elected by universities 60 76,470 3,026
 إسرائيل كنيست (כנסת وتعني مجمع) غرفة واحدة 4 قائمة مغلقة بنظام التمثيل النسبي 120 61,768 1,960
 إيطاليا برلمان (Parlamento) Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) Lower 5 قائمة مغلقة بنظام التمثيل النسبي 630 94,556 2,931
Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) Upper 5 proportional closed list and appointed by the President 315 189,112 5,863
 ساحل العاجIvory Coast Parliament (Parlement) National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Unicameral 5 majority 255 294,529 515
Senate (Sénat) Upper 5 Elected by district and provincial councils, and appointed by the president and appointed by the President TBD TBD TBD
 جامايكاJamaica Parliament House of Representatives Lower 5 First-past-the-post voting 63 45,860 392
Senate Upper 5 Appointed by the Governor General 21 137,580 1,176
 اليابانJapan Diet (国会 Kokkai) House of Representatives (衆議院 Shūgiin) Lower 4 proportional and majority 475 266,783 9,250
House of Councillors (参議院 Sangiin) Upper 6 proportional 242 529,157 18,348
 الأردنJordan Parliament (مجلس الأمة Majlis al-Umma) Assembly of Deputies (مجلس النواب Majlis al-Nuwaab) Lower 4 Single non-transferable vote 150 46,760 307
Senate (مجلس الأعيان Majlis al-Aayan) Upper 6 appointed by the monarch 75 93,520 614
 كازاخستانKazakhstan Parliament (Parlamenti) Assembly (Mazhilis) Lower 5 98 207,854 2,815
Senate Upper 6 appointed by the President and elected by local assemblies 47 340,527 4,612
 كينياKenya Parliament National Assembly Lower 5 parallel 349 126,182 118
Senate Upper 5 popular vote and appointed by the President 67 657,278 614
 كيريباتيKiribati House of Assembly (Maneaba ni Maungatabu) Unicameral 4 popular vote and appointed by Rabi Council of Leaders 46 2,239 13
كوريا الشمالية الجمعية الشعبية العليا (최고인민회의) غرفة واحدة 5 الاقتراع الشعبي 687 36,390 58
كوريا الجنوبية الجمعية الوطنية (국회) غرفة واحدة 4 بالأغلبية وعبر التمثيل النسبي 300 166,691 5,180
 الكويتKuwait National Assembly (مجلس الأمة Majlis al-Umma) Unicameral 4 popular vote and appointed by the prime minister 50 71,328 3,070
 قيرغيزستانKyrgyzstan Supreme Council (Joghorku Keneš) Unicameral 5 popular vote 120 44,690 109
 لاوسLaos National Assembly (Sapha Heng Xat) Unicameral 5 one-party state closed list 115 48,148 151
 لاتفياLatvia Parliament (Saeima) Unicameral 4 proportional closed list 100 20,703 349
 لبنانLebanon Parliament

(Parlement)

Chamber of Deputies (مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab)[9] Unicameral 4 popular vote 128 33,000 480
 ليسوتوLesotho Parliament National Assembly Lower 5 popular vote and proportional 120 16,927 31
Senate Upper 5 appointed by principal chiefs and by the ruling party 33 61,556 115
 ليبيرياLiberia Legislature House of Representatives Lower 6 majority 73 47,624 24
Senate Upper 9 majority 30 115,896 58
 ليبياLibya House of Representatives ( مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab) Unicameral 200 28,353 187
 ليختنشتاينLiechtenstein Diet (Landtag) Unicameral 4 proportional closed list 25 1,451 201
 ليتوانياLithuania Parliament (Seimas) Unicameral 4 proportional 141 21,658 436
 لوكسمبورغLuxembourg Chamber of Deputies (D'Chamber)[10] Unicameral 5 popular vote 60 8,484 687
مقدونيا الشمالية Macedonia, Republic of Assembly (Собрание Sobranie) Unicameral 4 123 16,736 173
 مدغشقرMadagascar Parliament National Assembly (Antenimieram-Pirenena)[11] Lower 5 160 137,078 127
Senate (Sénat) Upper 5 33 664,430 618
 مالاويMalawi National Assembly Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post voting 194 76,809 71
 ماليزياMalaysia Parliament (Parlimen) House of Representatives[12] (Dewan Rakyat) Lower 5 First-past-the-post voting 222 127,631 2,014
Senate[13] (Dewan Negara) Upper 3 26 appointed by the State Legislative Assemblies, 2 for each state and 44 appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, of which 4 are for the Federal Territories. 70 404,773 6,389
 المالديفMaldives Assembly (Majlis) Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post voting 85 4,266 36
 ماليMali National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Unicameral 4 147 elected in single or multi-member constituencies, using a runoff system. 13 elected by overseas Malians. 160 90,732 111
 مالطاMalta House of Representatives (Kamra tad-Deputati) Unicameral 5 Single transferable vote 69 5,950 155
 جزر مارشالMarshall Islands Legislature (Nitijela) Unicameral 4 Single and multi-member constituencies 33 2,060 4
 موريتانياMauritania Parliament (Barlamene) National Assembly (Al Jamiya al-Wataniyah) Lower 5 Runoff election 146 37,888 87
Assembly of Senators (Majlis al-Shuyukh) Upper 6 Election by communal councillors 56 56,803 126
 موريشيوسMauritius National Assembly Unicameral 5 70 17,614 275
 المكسيكMexico Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión) Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) Lower 3 Parallel voting: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (200 seats) / FPTP (300 seats) 500 227,821 3,323
Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) Upper 6 Parallel voting: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) 128 889,926 12,981
 مولدوفاMoldova Parliament (Parlamentul) Unicameral 4 101 33,498 118
 موناكوMonaco National Council (Conseil National) Unicameral 5 24 1,473 227
 منغولياMongolia State Great Assembly[14] (Улсын Их Хурал Ulsyn Ich-Chural) Unicameral 4 76 36,245 174
 الجبل الأسودMontenegro Assembly (Skupština / Скупштина) Unicameral 4 81 7,719 88
 المغربMorocco Parliament House of Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwab) Lower 5 395 100,444 500
House of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) Upper 9 270 120,905 602
 موزمبيقMozambique Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da República) Unicameral 5 proportional party list 250 85,588 95
 ميانمارMyanmar (Burma) Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) House of Representatives (Pyithu Hluttaw) Lower 5 popular vote and appointed by the military 440 137,000 187
House of Nationalities (Amyotha Hluttaw) Upper 5 popular vote and appointed by the military 224 269,107 369
 ناميبياNamibia Parliament National Assembly Lower 5 78 26,923 201
National Council Upper 6 26 80,769 605
 ناوروNauru Parliament Unicameral 3 18 521 3
 نيبالNepal Parliament Unicameral 4 Mixed member majoritarian (First past the post for 240 members, proportional representation for 335 members, and 26 members appointed by the Prime Minister) 601 44,084 35
 هولنداNetherlands States General (Staten-Generaal) House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer, Second Chamber) Lower 4 150 111,533 4,693
Senate (Eerste Kamer, First Chamber) Upper 4 75 223,066 9,387
 نيوزيلنداNew Zealand Parliament House of Representatives Unicameral 3 mixed-member proportional representation 120 33,566 1,018
 نيكاراغواNicaragua National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) Unicameral 5 92 64,034 205
 النيجرNiger National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Unicameral 5 171 139,210 102
 نيجيرياNigeria National Assembly House of Representatives Lower 4 360 388,898 1,148
Senate Upper 4 109 1,284,436 3,792
 النرويجNorway Great Assembly (Storting) Unicameral 4 proportional mixed 169 29,785 1,573
 عمانOman Council of Oman Consultative Assembly[15] (Majlis al-Shura) Lower 84 33,017 973
Assembly of State[16] (Majlis al-Dawla) Upper 83 33415 985
 باكستانPakistan Parliament of Pakistan (پارلیمنٹ) National Assembly (ایوان زیریں پاکستان) Lower 5 342 537,023 1,454
Senate (ایوانِ بالا)[17] Upper 6 104 1,735,000 4,697
 بالاوPalau National Congress (Olbiil era Kelulau) House of Delegates Lower 4 majority rule 16 1,309 17
Senate Upper 4 majority rule 9 2,328 31
فلسطين State of Palestine Legislative Council (Palestinian National Authority) Unicameral 132 32,277
 بنماPanama National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) Unicameral 5 71 47,969 712
 بابوا غينيا الجديدةPapua New Guinea National Parliament Unicameral 5 109 56,766 154
 باراغوايParaguay Congress (Congreso) Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) Lower 5 80 80,681 441
Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) Upper 5 45 143,434 785
 بيروPeru Congress of the Republic (Congreso de la República) Unicameral 5 130 217,082 2,322
 الفلبينPhilippines Congress (Kongreso) House of Representatives (Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan / Mababang Kapulungan / Cámara de Representantes) Lower 3 closed list and First-past-the-post voting 292 355,393 1,365
Senate (Senado / Mataas na Kapulungan) Upper 6 bloc voting 24 4,323,958 16,267
 بولنداPoland Parliament of Poland

National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe)[18]

Sejm (Sejm) Lower 4 proportional open list 460 83,697 1,677
Senate (Senat) Upper 4 majority 100 385,010 7,716
 البرتغالPortugal Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia da República) Unicameral 4 proportional party list 230 45,920 1,082
 قطرQatar Consultative Assembly[19] (Majlis ash-Shura) Unicameral 35 52,958 5,200
 رومانياRomania Parliament (Parlamentul) Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaţilor) Lower 4 329 58,416 819
Senate (Senat) Upper 4 137 139,005 1,950
 روسياRussia Federal Assembly (Федеральное Собрание Federalnoye Sobraniye) State Duma (Государственная Дума Gosudarstvennaya Duma) Lower 5 parallel (First-past-the-post voting for 225 members and proportional party list for 225 members) 450 318,000 5,296
Federation Council (Совет Федерации Sovet Federatsii) Upper dependant on individual elections in the federal subjects (4 or 5) senators are delegated from the executive and legislative bodies of the federal subjects 170 862,048 14,357
 روانداRwanda Parliament (Inteko Ishinga Amategeko) Chamber of Deputies (Umutwe w'Abadepite) Lower 5 80 146,121 171
Senate (Umutwe wa Sena) Upper 8 26 449,603 526
 سانت كيتس ونيفيسSaint Kitts and Nevis National Assembly Unicameral 5 15 3,686 58
 سانت لوسياSaint Lucia Parliament House of Assembly Lower 5 17 10,221 123
Senate Upper 11 15,796 191
 سانت فينسنت والغرينادينSaint Vincent and the Grenadines House of Assembly Unicameral 5 21 5,714 59
 سامواSamoa Legislative Assembly (Fono) Unicameral 5 49 3,965 22
 سان مارينوSan Marino Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) Unicameral 5 60 536 18
 ساو تومي وبرينسيبSão Tomé and Príncipe National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional) Unicameral 4 55 3,330 6
 السعوديةSaudi Arabia Consultative Assembly[20] (Majlis ash-Shura) Unicameral 150 189,175 4,551
 السنغالSenegal Parliament National Assembly Unicameral 5 150 85,701 167
 صربياSerbia National Assembly (Народна скупштина / Narodna Skupština) Unicameral 4 250 28,482 315
 سيشلSeychelles National Assembly Unicameral 5 31 2,709 72
 سيراليونSierra Leone Parliament Unicameral 5 124 40,136 41
 سنغافورةSingapore Parliament Unicameral 5 First-past-the-post voting (MP) and appointed by the President (NMP) 99 52,360 3,180
 سلوفاكياSlovakia National Council (Národná rada) Unicameral 4 150 35,980 846
 سلوفينياSlovenia Parliament (Državni zbor Republike Slovenije) National Assembly (Državni zbor) Lower 4 90 22,779 643
National Council (Državni svet)[21] Upper 40 51,254 1,447
 جزر سليمانSolomon Islands National Parliament Unicameral 4 50 10,460 34
 الصومالSomalia Federal Parliament House of the People Lower Appointed 275 36,675 21
Upper House Upper Not established yet, powers exercised by the House of the People 56 180,100 103
 جنوب أفريقياSouth Africa Parliament National Assembly Lower 5 400 126,466 1,387
National Council of Provinces Upper 90 562,075 6,168
 جنوب السودانSouth Sudan National Legislature National Legislature Assembly Lower 170 48,591 81
Council of States Upper Appointed by President 50 165,210 276
 إسبانياSpain General Courts (Cortes Generales) Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) Lower 4, unless elections are called earlier. proportional closed list 350 131,894 4,038
Senate (Senado) Upper 4, unless elections are called earlier (212 are appointed through general election and 58 when regional legislatures are renewed, which not always happens at the same date). 266 173,545 5,313
 سريلانكاSri Lanka Parliament (ශ්රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව (Sinhala) / இலங்கை பாராளுமன்றம் (Tamil)) Unicameral 5 225 90,122 517
 السودانSudan National Legislature National Assembly (Majlis Watani) Lower 6 426 68,653 197
Council of States (Majlis Welayat) Upper 6 50 617,880 1,780
 سورينامSuriname National Assembly (Nationale Assemblée) Unicameral 5 51 10,470 99
 إسواتينيSwaziland Parliament (Liblanda) House of Assembly Lower 5 majority 55 22,181 113
Senate Upper appointed by the King 30 40,666 207
 السويدSweden The Riksdag Unicameral 4 proportional 349 27,286 1,093
 سورياSyria People's Assembly (Majlis al-Sha'ab) Unicameral 250 86,964 240
  سويسراSwitzerland Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung, Assemblée fédérale, Assemblea federale) National Council (Nationalrat, Conseil National, Consiglio Nazionale) Lower 4 200 40,000 1,699
Council of States (Ständerat, Conseil des Etats, Consiglio degli Stati) Upper 4 46 173,913 7,388
 طاجيكستانTajikistan Supreme Assembly (Majlisi Oli) Assembly of Representatives (Majlisi Mamoyandogan) Lower 5 63 123,809 257
National Assembly (Majlisi Milliy) Upper 5 33 236,363 491
 تنزانياTanzania National Assembly (Bunge) Unicameral 5 384 120,974 178
 تايلاندThailand National Assembly (รัฐสภา ;Rathasapha) National Legislative Assembly Unicameral 250 135 918
 توغوTogo National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) Unicameral 5 81 76,434 79
 تونغاTonga Legislative Assembly Unicameral 26 3,962 29
 ترينيداد وتوباغوTrinidad and Tobago Parliament House of Representatives Lower 5 41 32,139 647
Senate Upper 31 42,506 856
 تونسTunisia Assembly of the Representatives of the People (مجلس نواب الشعب Majless Noweb al Shaab) Unicameral 5 217 49,188 465
 تركياTurkey Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi) Unicameral 4 550 135,862 1,951
 تركمانستانTurkmenistan Assembly (Mejlis) Unicameral 5 125 41,360 346
 توفالوTuvalu Parliament (Palamene) Unicameral 4 15 666 2
 أوغنداUganda Parliament Unicameral 5 426 87,839 123
 أوكرانياUkraine Supreme Council (Верховна Рада Verkhovna Rada) Unicameral 5 450 101,248 732
 الإمارات العربية المتحدةUnited Arab Emirates Federal National Assembly (المجلس الوطني الإتحادي Majlis Watani Ittihad) Unicameral 40 206,601 6,470
 المملكة المتحدةUnited Kingdom Parliament House of Commons Lower 5 First-past-the-post voting 650 95,787 3,478
House of Lords Upper Life Life peers appointed by the Sovereign on advice of Prime Minister. 92 elected by and from hereditary peers using preferential voting. 26 Lords Spiritual are bishops of the Church of England. 822 81,388 2,955
 الولايات المتحدةUnited States Congress House of Representatives Lower 2 First-past-the-post voting 435 722,636 34,698
Senate Upper 6 First-past-the-post voting 100 3,143,467 215,623
 الأوروغواي الجمعية العامة (Asamblea General) Chamber of Representatives (Cámara de Representantes) أدنى 5 99 33,195 514
Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) Upper 5 30 109,543 1,696
 أوزبكستان الجمعية العليا (Oliy Majlis) Legislative Chamber أدنى 5 150 194,156 634
Senate أعلى 5 100 291,234 952
 فانواتو برلمان (Parlement) غرفة واحدة 4 52 4319 14
 الفاتيكان Pontifical Commission (Pontificia Commissione per lo Stato della Città del Vaticano) غرفة واحدة 5 7 114
 فنزويلا الجمعية الوطنية (Asamblea Nacional) غرفة واحدة 5 165 175,430 2,267
 فيتنام الجمعية الوطنية (Quốc hội) غرفة واحدة 5 498 176,385 602
 اليمن مجلس النواب غرفة واحدة 6 301 81,485 192
 زامبيا الجمعية الوطنية غرفة واحدة 5 150 87,284 145
 زيمبابوي برلمان House of Assembly أدنى 5 210 61,971 29
Senate أعلى 5 40 325,350 153

الهيئات التشريعية في الدول وغيرها من الأقاليم الغير سيادية[عدل]

البلد الاسم العام للهيئة التشريعية اسم المجلس مستوى المجلس الفترة ( بالسنة ) نظام التصويت عدد المقاعد عدد السكان لكل مقعد الناتج المحلي الإجمالي لكل مقعد (بالدولار الأمريكي)
 جزر أولاند Law Assembly (Lagtinget) Unicameral 4 30 945
 آلدرني States (États) Unicameral 4 10 240
 ساموا الأمريكية Legislative Assembly (Fono) House of Representatives Lower 2 21 2,643 21
Senate Upper 4 18 3,084 31
 أنغويلا House of Assembly Unicameral 5 11 1,222 15
 أروبا Estates (Staten) Unicameral 4 21 4,832 107
 Azores Legislative Assembly (Assembleia Legislativa) Unicameral 4 57 4,311 72
 برمودا Parliament House of Assembly Lower 5 36 1,784 125
Senate Upper 11 5,839 409
 جزر العذراء البريطانية House of Assembly Unicameral 4 15 1,969 56
 جزر الكناري Parliament (Parlamento de Canarias) Unicameral 4 60 35,000
 كتالونيا Parliament (Parlament de Catalunya) Unicameral 4 135 55,676
 جزر كايمان Legislative Assembly Unicameral 4 18 3,080 125
 القرم Supreme Council (Верховна Рада / Верховный Совет / Yuqarı Radası) Unicameral 100 19,731
 كوراساو Estates (Staten) Unicameral 4 21 7,127
 جزر فوكلاند Legislative Assembly Unicameral 4 11 272 9
 جزر فارو Law Assembly (Løgtingið) Unicameral 4 33 1,467 44
 بولينزيا الفرنسية Assembly (Assemblée de la Polynésie française) Unicameral 5 57 4,859 82
 غاليسيا Parliament (Parlamento da Galiza/Galicia) Unicameral 4 75 36,649
 جبل طارق Parliament Unicameral 4 17 1,750 75
 جرينلاند Parliament (Inatsisartut)[22] Unicameral 4 31 1,830 64
 غوام Legislature (Liheslaturan Guåhan) Unicameral 4 15 10,623
 غيرنزي States (États) Unicameral 4 45 1,387 60
 هونغ كونغ Legislative Council (立法會) Unicameral 4 Proportional representation using the Hare quota and the largest remainder method for the geographical constituencies, and functional constituencies elected by their respective electorates 70 101,481 5,015
 جزيرة مانIsle of Man Tynwald (Tinvaal) House of Keys (Kiare as Feed) Lower 5 24 3,520 113
Legislative Council (Yn Choonceil Slattyssagh) Upper 5 11 7,681 247
 جيرزيJersey States (États) Unicameral 4 39 2,509 130
 ماكاوMacau Legislative Assembly (立法會, Assembleia Legislativa) Unicameral 4 Proportional representation, elected from functional constituencies, and appointed by the Chief Executive 29 19,610 636
 MadeiraMadeira Legislative Assembly (Assembleia Legislativa) Unicameral 4 47 5,698 179
 مونتسراتMontserrat Legislative Council Unicameral 5 9 546 3
 كاليدونيا الجديدةNew Caledonia Congress (Congrès Territorial) Unicameral 5 54 4,547 58
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann) Unicameral 5 Single transferable vote 108 16,767
 جزر ماريانا الشماليةNorthern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Legislature House of Representatives Lower 2 20 2,694 45
Senate Upper 2 10 5,388 90
 جزر بيتكيرنPitcairn Islands Island Council Unicameral 3 10 6
 بورتوريكوPuerto Rico Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa) House of Representatives (Cámara de Representantes) Lower 4 First-past-the-post voting 51 93,145 1,200
Senate (Senado) Upper 4 Majority 27 465,427 2,091
 سان بارتيلميSaint Barthélemy Territorial Council Unicameral 5 19
 سانت هيلانةSaint Helena Legislative Council Unicameral 4 21 1,266 2
 سان مارتينSaint Martin Territorial Council (conseil territorial) Unicameral 23
 سان بيير وميكلونSaint Pierre and Miquelon Territorial Council Unicameral 6 19
 ساركSark Chief Pleas Unicameral 12 50
 اسكتلنداScotland Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba, Scots Pairliament) Unicameral 5 Additional Member System 129 40,734
 سينت مارتنSint Maarten Estates (Staten) Unicameral 4 15 2,495 52
 توكيلاوTokelau Parliament Unicameral 3 20 70 1
 جزر توركس وكايكوسTurks and Caicos Islands House of Assembly Unicameral 4 21 1,498 10
 جزر العذراء الأمريكيةU.S. Virgin Islands Legislature Unicameral 2 15 7,093 105
 ويلزWales National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) Unicameral 5 Additional Member System 60 51,066
 والس وفوتوناWallis and Futuna Territorial Assembly (Assemblée Territoriale) Unicameral 5 20 650 3

الهيئات التشريعية للدول الغير مشتركة بالأمم المتحدة (بما في ذلك الدول غير المتنازع عليها)[عدل]

الدولة الغير مُدرجة بالأمم المتحدة الاسم العام للهيئة التشريعية اسم المجلس مستوى المجلس الفترة (بالسنة) نظام التصويت عدد المقاعد عدد السكان لكل مقعد
 أبخازيا الجمعية الشعبية (Жәлар Реизара, Zhelar Reizara) غرفة واحدة 5 35 6,877
 جمهورية الصين (تايوان) يوان تشريعي (立法院) غرفة واحدة 4 الفوز للأكثر أصواتاً بينما تنتخب مقاعد أخرى عبر القوائم الحزبية المغلقة أو عبر الاقتراع المفرد غير القابل للنقل 113 117,360 5,206
 جزر كوك برلمان غرفة واحدة 4 24 815,375
 كوسوفو جمعية كوسوفو ((بالألبانية: Kuvendi i Kosovësبالسيريلية الصربية: Скупштина Косова) غرفة واحدة 4 120 15,213
 جمهورية مرتفعات قرة باغ الجمعية الوطنية (Azgayin Zhoghov) غرفة واحدة 5 33 4,284
 نييوي جمعية غرفة واحدة 3 20 69
 قبرص الشمالية جمعية الجمهورية (Cumhuriyet Meclisi) غرفة واحدة 5 50 5,898
 الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية المجلس الوطني غرفة واحدة 2 53
 الصومال برلمان (Baarlamaanka) مجلس النواب (Golaha Wakiilada) أدنى 5 82 42,682
مجلس الشيوخ (Golaha Guurtida) أعلى 82 42,682
 أوسيتيا الجنوبية برلمان غرفة واحدة 5 34 2,117
التبت الإدارة التبتية المركزية برلمان الإدارة المركزية التبتية غرفة واحدة 5 الفوز للأكثر أصواتاً 43
 ترانسنيستريا المجلس الأعلى[23] (Верховный Совет, Verhkovny Sovet) غرفة واحدة 5 43 12,062

انظر أيضا[عدل]

المجالس التشريعية في المقاطعات والأقاليم الكندية

المراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ Article 7(3) Treaty of Lisbon: Protocol ON THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF SUBSIDIARITY AND PROPORTIONALITY[وصلة مكسورة] نسخة محفوظة 23 مارس 2014 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  2. ^ [1] نسخة محفوظة 28 يوليو 2017 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  3. ^ The head of state is a constituent part of the parliament too. نسخة محفوظة 2 يونيو 2019 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  4. ^ The native name is also used in English.
  5. ^ អាណតិ្តរបស់សភា نسخة محفوظة 30 يونيو 2017 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  6. ^ The PRC has also a Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Zhōngguó Rénmín Zhèngzhì Xiéshāng Huìyì), which is a political advisory body but not a legislature. نسخة محفوظة 2 يونيو 2019 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  7. ^ Also: Temsilciler Meclisi
  8. ^ Also: Riksdag
  9. ^ Also: National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale)
  10. ^ Also: Chambre des Députés
  11. ^ Also: Assemblée nationale
  12. ^ Literally, People's Hall
  13. ^ Literally, Nation's Hall
  14. ^ In English State Great Khural is used too.
  15. ^ The Consultative Assembly has only consultative tasks
  16. ^ The Assembly of State has only consultative tasks
  17. ^ ur:ایوانِ بالا
  18. ^ Name used only on those rare occasions when both houses sit together
  19. ^ The Consultative Assembly has only consultative task
  20. ^ The appointed Consultative Assembly has only legislative tasks
  21. ^ Lakota، Igor (2006). Sistem nepopolne dvodomnosti v slovenskem parlamentu (diplomska naloga) [The system of incomplete bicameralism in the Slovenian Parliament (diploma thesis)] (PDF) (باللغة السلوفينية). Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana. صفحة 62. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 16 ديسمبر 2010. Opinions differ, however the majority of domestic experts agree that the National Council may be regarded as the upper house, but the bicameralism is distinctively incomplete. 
  22. ^ Also: Landsting
  23. ^ Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Pridnestrovie) نسخة محفوظة 01 أكتوبر 2017 على موقع واي باك مشين.
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