مستخدم:محمد 19951/ملعب14

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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26 November 2011: NASA launches its Curiosity rover (pictured), the largest Mars rover yet built.

.[1][2]

Events, discoveries and inventions[عدل]

January[عدل]

18 January 2011: scientists prove that sharks are functionally colorblind.
  • 5 January
20 January 2011: researchers demonstrate a medical technique that renders human T-cells (pictured, right) resistant to HIV.
  • 20 January
  • 24 January

February[عدل]

3 February 2011: the Kepler space telescope discovers a solar system of six planets orbiting the star Kepler-11 (artist's impression pictured).
  • 3 February
  • 15 February
  • 17 February
  • 22 February
  • 28 February

March[عدل]

18 March 2011: the MESSENGER probe (artist's rendering shown) becomes the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.
  • 1 March
  • 4 March
  • 20 March
27 March 2011: American scientists successfully demonstrate a fire-suppression system which uses electric fields to extinguish open flames.
  • 24 March

April[عدل]

  • 4 April
  • 5 April
6 April 2011: scientists in Japan grow working retinas from mouse stem cells.
  • 12 April
  • 13 April
  • 14 April
  • 15 April
  • 18 April
21 April 2011: a modified anti-malaria gene is successfully introduced to a population of mosquitoes.
  • 21 April
  • [3]
  • 25 April
  • 28 April

May[عدل]

4 May 2011: NASA's orbiting Gravity Probe B (pictured pre-launch) experimentally confirms two aspects of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
  • 1 May
  • 3 May
  • 4 May
  • 6 May
  • 11 May
12 May 2011: astronomers state that the exoplanet Gliese 581d (artist's impression pictured) could potentially support Earth-like life.
  • 13 May
  • 18 May
  • 19 May
  • 23 May
26 May 2011: American scientists successfully transmute human skin cells directly into neurons (pictured).
  • 25 May
  • 26 May
  • 31 May

June[عدل]

1 June 2011: two new chemical elements, 114 and 116, are officially added to the periodic table.
  • 1 June
  • 3 June
  • 9 June
  • 10 June
12 June 2011: the Nabro Volcano erupts in Eritrea (ash plume pictured), despite having been considered extinct.
  • 14 June
  • 17 June
  • 19 June
22 June 2011: Stanford University engineers develop nanowire electronics that can be attached to nearly any surface (gold nanowires pictured).
  • 22 June
  • 24 June

26 June

July[عدل]

7 July 2011: Swedish surgeons successfully carry out the world's first artificial organ transplant, giving a cancer patient a new, lab-grown trachea.
  • 3 July
  • 7 July
  • 12 July
16 July 2011: NASA's Dawn spacecraft successfully enters orbit around the asteroid 4 Vesta (pictured).
  • 13 July
  • 16 July
  • 19 July
  • 20 July
  • 21 July
21 July 2011: the final mission of the Space Shuttle program, STS-135, ends with the landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis (pictured) at Kennedy Space Center.
  • 26 July

August[عدل]

  • 4 August
  • 5 August
10 August 2011: a new gene therapy successfully kills off leukemia lymphocytes (pictured) in three advanced patients.
  • 11 August
  • 16 August
  • 17 August
  • 18 August
19 August 2011: the American Office of Naval Research successfully tests a new class of conventional explosive, reportedly five times more powerful than existing explosives.
  • 23 August
  • 31 August

September[عدل]

2 September 2011: scientists create a working electric motor made from a single molecule (molecular-scale computer pictured).
  • 2 September
  • 8 September
  • 12 September
14 September 2011: NASA publishes the design of its future heavy-lift rocket, the Space Launch System (concept art shown).
  • 13 September
  • 14 September
  • 16 September
  • 22 September
  • 27 September
  • 29 September
  • 30 September

October[عدل]

  • 3 October
  • 5 October
  • 10 October
12 October 2011: scientists reconstruct the genome of the Black Death which devastated Europe in the 14th century.
  • 12 October
  • 14 October
  • 18 October
  • 19 October
  • 21 October
26 October 2011: the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, the first major airliner to significantly incorporate composite materials, completes its first commercial flight.
  • 25 October
  • 26 October
  • 27 October
31 October 2011: the world population reaches seven billion, according to a United Nations estimate.
  • 28 October
  • 31 October

November[عدل]

4 November 2011: the MARS-500 isolation experiment (facility diagram shown) ends in Moscow, having simulated a 520-day manned mission to Mars.
  • 1 November
  • 2 November
  • 4 November
  • 5 November
8 November 2011: Honda releases an enhanced version of its Asimo humanoid robot (earlier version pictured).
  • 8 November
  • 9 November
  • 10 November
  • 14 November
  • 15 November
  • 16 November
  • 17 November
  • 18 November
  • [4]
26 November 2011: NASA successfully launches its Mars Science Laboratory mission, which landed the Curiosity Mars rover (artist's impression pictured) on Mars in 2012.[5]
  • [5]
  • 28 November
  • 30 November

December[عدل]

1 December 2011: Oxford University scientists successfully induce quantum entanglement in two diamonds, the first time entanglement has been achieved in objects visible to the naked eye.
  • 2 December
  • 5 December
  • 8 December
  • 13 December
14 December 2011: scientists develop an imaging system which can capture images at one trillion frames per second, allowing it to image the motion of individual light waves.
  • 14 December
  • 15 December
  • 16 December
  • 20 December
21 December 2011: researchers report that non-native snakes have devastated populations of small mammals in the Florida Everglades.
  • 21 December
  • 22 December
  • 27 December
  • 29 December

Prizes[عدل]

Abel Prize[عدل]

Nobel Prize[عدل]

Deaths[عدل]

11 February 2011: Christian J. Lambertsen, the inventor of the SCUBA device, dies aged 93.

January[عدل]

  • 17 January

February[عدل]

  • 13 February

March[عدل]

1 March 2011: John M. Lounge, a former NASA astronaut, dies aged 64.
  • 3 March
  • 4 March
  • 8 March
  • 14 March
  • 23 March
  • 26 March

April[عدل]

5 April 2011: Baruch Samuel Blumberg, a Nobel Prize-winning American physician, dies aged 85.
  • 21 April

May[عدل]

  • 1 May
  • 5 May
  • 12 May
30 May 2011: Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, a Nobel Prize-winning American physicist, dies aged 89.
  • 19 May
  • 28 May

June[عدل]

July[عدل]

23 July 2011: Robert Ettinger, the "father of cryonics", dies aged 92.

August[عدل]

September[عدل]

14 September 2011: Rudolf Mössbauer, a Nobel Prize-winning German physicist, dies aged 82.

October[عدل]

5 October 2011: Steve Jobs, an American technology entrepreneur and co-founder of Apple Inc., dies aged 56.

November[عدل]

December[عدل]

See also[عدل]

References[عدل]

  1. ^ International Year of Forests 2011 – Celebrating Forests for People. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  2. ^ International Year of Chemistry 2011 – About IYC. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  3. ^ The paper was presented at the CLEO conference on 2 May, and published on 9 May.
  4. ^ "Reconstructed changes in Arctic sea ice over the past 1,450 years". Nature. 479: 509–512. 23 November 2011. doi:10.1038/nature10581. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 23 يناير 2014. 
  5. أ ب "Nasa's Curiosity rover successfully lands on Mars". BBC. 6 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Budin، Itay؛ Devaraj، Neal K. (December 29, 2011). "Membrane Assembly Driven by a Biomimetic Coupling Reaction". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 134 (2): 751–753. doi:10.1021/ja2076873. اطلع عليه بتاريخ February 18, 2012. 
  7. ^ Staff (January 25, 2012). "Chemists Synthesize Artificial Cell Membrane". ScienceDaily. اطلع عليه بتاريخ February 18, 2012. 
  8. ^ Staff (January 26, 2012). "Chemists create artificial cell membrane". kurzweilai.net. تمت أرشفته من الأصل في February 26, 2012. اطلع عليه بتاريخ February 18, 2012. 
  9. ^ Dr. James J. Rahal, 77, Virus Expert, Dies
  10. ^ Rudiger ‘Roger’ Haugwitz, chemist who used science to create art, dies at 79. Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-10.
  11. ^ Harold Kosasky, 83, pioneer in treatment of infertility. Boston Globe, 26 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
  12. ^ Dr. Max Harry Weil dies at 84: pioneer in critical care. Articles.latimes.com (2011-08-06). Retrieved on 2011-10-10.
  13. ^ Dr. Charles C. Edwards, Influential F.D.A. Commissioner, Dies at 87
  14. ^ Fritz Bach, Who Aided Transplant Survival, Dies at 77
  15. ^ William Kannel, 87; force behind pioneering Framingham Heart Study. Boston.com (2011-09-18). Retrieved on 2011-10-10.
  16. ^ W. B. Kannel, Who Led Historic Heart Study, Dies at 87. Nytimes.com (2011-08-23). Retrieved on 2011-10-10.
  17. ^ Dr. William Wolff, Colonoscopy Co-Developer, Dies at 94
  18. ^ Bruce Dan, Who Helped Link Toxic Shock and Tampons, Is Dead at 64. New York Times, 10 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  19. ^ Dr. Richard Koch dies at 89; medical pioneer. Los Angeles Times, 8 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  20. ^ Dr. J. Willis Hurst, Cardiologist to Lyndon B. Johnson, Dies at 90
  21. ^ Morris Chafetz, 87, Dies; Altered View of Alcoholism
  22. ^ Dr. John F. Burke, Dies at 89; Created Synthetic Skin
  23. ^ "T. Franklin Williams, Early Geriatric Specialist, Dies at 90". New York Times, 3 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-08.

External links[عدل]