مستخدم:Ahmed Shoukry/قرطوم

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom[1] also ketum) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia. M. speciosa is indigenous to Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea,[2] where it has been used in traditional medicine since at least the 19th century. Kratom has opioid properties and some stimulant-like effects.[3][4]

Common minor side effects may include nausea, vomiting, and constipation. More severe side effects may include respiratory depression (decreased breathing), seizure, addiction, and psychosis.[5] Other side effects may include high heart rate and blood pressure, trouble sleeping, and, rarely, liver toxicity.[6][7] When use is stopped, withdrawal symptoms may occur. Deaths have occurred with kratom both by itself and mixed with other substances.[8] Between 2011 and 2017, 44 kratom-related deaths occurred, only one of which involved kratom alone. Nine kratom-related deaths occurred in Sweden in 2011 and 2012, all involving a mixture of kratom with a prescription opioid analgesic.

References[عدل]

  1. ^ "Ahmed Shoukry/قرطوم". شبكة معلومات موارد المواد الوراثية (GRIN). دائرة البحوث الزراعية (ARS)، وزارة الزراعة الأمريكية (USDA). 
  2. ^ Rech، MA؛ Donahey، E؛ Cappiello Dziedzic، JM؛ Oh، L؛ Greenhalgh، E (February 2015). "New drugs of abuse.". Pharmacotherapy. 35 (2): 189–97. PMID 25471045. doi:10.1002/phar.1522. 
  3. ^ Fluyau، D؛ Revadigar، N (2017). "Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 8: 62. PMID 28484399. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00062. 
  4. ^ Cinosi، E؛ Martinotti، G؛ Simonato، P؛ Singh، D؛ Demetrovics، Z؛ Roman-Urrestarazu، A؛ Bersani، F. S؛ Vicknasingam، B؛ Piazzon، G (2015). "Following "the Roots" of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries". BioMed Research International. 2015: 968786. PMID 26640804. doi:10.1155/2015/968786. 
  5. ^ Marx, John؛ Walls, Ron؛ Hockberger, Robert (2014). "Chapter 156: Hallucinogens". Rosen's emergency medicine : concepts and clinical practice (الطبعة Eighth). Elsevier Health Sciences. صفحات 2015–23. ISBN 9781455749874. 
  6. ^ "Kratom". LiverTox, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 9 March 2017. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 29 مارس 2017. 
  7. ^ Anwar، Mehruba؛ Law، Royal؛ Schier، Josh (2016-01-01). "Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers – United States, 2010–2015". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 65 (29): 748–49. ISSN 0149-2195. PMID 27466822. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6529a4. 
  8. ^ "Mitragynine". Toxnet, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 14 February 2012. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 15 فبراير 2018. 

[[تصنيف:مسكنات ألم]] [[تصنيف:مضادات الاكتئاب]] [[تصنيف:مضادات الإسهال]] [[تصنيف:مسببات الابتهاج]] [[تصنيف:أعشاب وفطريات تسبب هلوسة]] [[تصنيف:نباتات طبية]] [[تصنيف:أشباه أفيونات]] [[تصنيف:أشجار الهند الصينية]] [[تصنيف:أشجار ماليزيا]] [[تصنيف:أشجار غينيا الجديدة]]