مستخدم:Mahmoudalrawi/ملعبي

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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Young child with a red rash covering face, chest, shoulders, and arms
طفل مصاب بالحصبة

تصيب الكثير من الأمراض الجهاز اللحافي في الإنسان — نظام الأعضاء الذي يغطي كامل الجسم ويتكون من الجلد والشعر والأظافر وكذلك والعضلات والغدد المرتبطة به.[1] الوظيفة الرئيسية لهذا الجهاز هو أن يكون حاجزا للبيئة الخارجية.[2] معدل وزن الجلد يبلغ 4 كيلوغرامات تقريبا ويغطي مساحة مترين مربعين ويتكون من 3 طبقات متميزة هي: the البشرة والأدمة ونسيج تحت الجلد.[1]

هنالك نوعان من الجلد عند الإنسان هما: الجلد المشعر والجلد الأجرد، وهو الجلد الفاقد للشعر في راحة اليد وأخمص القدم (ويسمى كذلك بالسطح "الراحي الأخمصي").[3] في الجلد المشعر، يوجد الشعر في تراكيب تسمى بالوحدات الشعرية الزهمية، كل واحدة تحتوي على بصيلة الشعرة وغدة زهمية وعضلة ناصبة للشعر مرتبطة بها.[4] تتكون البشرة والشعر والغدد في مرحلة الجنين من الأديم الظاهر، والذي يتأثر كيميائيا الأديم المتوسط والواقع تحته والذي يكون الأدمة والأنسجة تحت الجلد.[5][6][7]

البشرة هي الطبقة الخارجية في الجلد، وهي ظهارة حرشفية مكونة من بعض الطبقات: الطبقة المتقرنة والطبقة الصافية والطبقة الحبيبية والطبقة الشائكة والطبقة القاعدية.[8] تصل التغذية إلى هذه الطبقات من الأدمة عن طريق الانتشار لكون البشرة خالية من الأوعية الدموية. تحتوي البشرة على 4 أنواع من الخلايا: الخلايا الكيراتينينة والخلايا الميلانينية وخلايا لانغرهانس وخلايا ميركل. تعد الخلايا الكيراتينينة المكون الرئيسي من بين هذه الأنواع، حيث تشكل تقريبا 95٪ من البشرة.[3] يحافظ على هذه الظهارة الحرشفية المطبقة من خلال انقسام الخلايا في الطبقة القاعدية، حيث أن الخلايا المتمايزة تزاح تدريجيا من الطبقة الشائكة نحو الطبقة المتقرنة، حيث يتم التخلص من الخلايا من هذه الطبقة باستمرار.[3] معدل إنتاج الخلايا في الجلد الطبيعي يساوي معدل الفقدان، وتحتاج الخلية أسبوعين للانتقال من طبقة الخلايا القاعدية إلى طبقة الخلايا الحبيبية، وتحتاج إسبوعين إضافيين لكي تعبر الطبقة المتقرنة.[9]

الأدمة هي طبقة في الجلد تقع بين البشرة ونسيج تحت الجلد، وتتكون من مقطعين هما الأدمة الحليمية والأدمة الشبكية.[10] تتطابق الأدمة الحليمية السطحية مع حروف شبكة الأدمة التي تعلوها، وتوجد منطقة الغشاء القاعدي بين الطبقتين وتتفاعلان من خلالها.[10] تتكون الأدمة من تراكيب هي الكولاجين وألياف مرنة ومادة أساسية.[10] توجد داخل هذه المكونات الوحدات الشعرية الزهمية والعضلات الناصبة والغدد المفرزة والغدد المفترزة.[8] تحتوي الأدمة على شبكتين وعائتين تجريان بشكل متواز إلى سطح الجلد، إحداهما واحدة سطحية والأخرى ضفيرة عميقة، وهما مرتبطتان بأوعية موصلة عمودية.[8][11] وظيفة الأوعية الدموية في الدمة مكونة من أربعة فقرات هي: توفير التغذية وتظيم درجة الحرارة وتنظيم الاتهاب والمشاركة في شفاء الجروح.[12][13]

نسيج تحت الجلد هو طبقة دهنية تقع بين الأدمة واللفافة الواقعة تحتها.[14] هذا النسيج بدوره ينقسم إلى مكونين هما: الطلبقة الدهنية الحقيقة أو السبلة الشحمية، وتوجد تحتها طبقة أثرية من العضلات هي السبلة العضلية.[3] المكونات الخلوية الرئيسية في هذا النسيج هي الخلايا الدهنية.[14] يتكون تركيب هذا النسيج من حيز حاجزي وحيز فصي، وهما يختلان في المظهر تحت المجهر.[8] تتضمن وظيفة الطبقة الدهنية تحت الجلد عزل الجسم وامتصاص الإصابات وتوفر الحفظ لمصادر الطاقة.[14]

الحالات المرتبطة بالجهاز اللحافي عند الإنسان تتضمن طيفا واسعا من الأمراض، يطلق عليها تسمية الجلادات, بالإضافة للكثير من الحلات غير المرضية مثل (كما في ظروف معينة: فرط ميلانين الظفر وأظافر المضرب).[15][16] ورغم أن هنالك عددا قليلا من الأمراض مسجلة لأغلب زيارات المرضي لأطباء الجلد، لكن هنالك آلاف الحالات الجلدية تم العرف عليها ووصفها.[14] ويواجه تصنيف هذه الأمراض تحديات في علم تصنيف الأمراض، حيث أن الكثير من أسباب هذه الأمراض ومرضيتها عادة غير معروفة.[17][18] لذلك فإن أكثر الكتب العلمية تصنف هذه الأمراض حسب موقعها وتكوينها وأسبابها وغيرها.[19][20] يجرى التشخيص السريري لأي حالة جلدية معينة من خلال جمع معلومات المريض المتعلقة بالآفة الجلدية وتشمل موقعها (مثل الذراع والرأس والساق) والأعراض (الحكة والألم) والمدة (حادة أو مزمنة) والتنسيق (منعزل أو عام أو حلقي أو خطي), والتشكل (البقع والحطاطات والحويصلات) واللون (أحمر او أزرق أو بني أو أسود أو أبيض أو أصفر).[21] يحتاج تشخيص الكثير من الأمراض إلى خزعة جلدية لتعطي المعلومات النسيجية[22][23] التي يمكن ربطها مع التشخيص السريري والنتائج المختبرية.[24][25][26]

Acneiform eruptions[عدل]

Acneiform eruptions are caused by changes in the pilosebaceous unit.[27][28]

Autoinflammatory syndromes[عدل]

Autoinflammatory syndromes are a group of inherited disorders characterized by bouts of inflammatory skin lesions and periodic fevers.[29][30]

Chronic blistering[عدل]

Chronic blistering cutaneous conditions have a prolonged course and present with vesicles and bullae.[31][32][33]

Conditions of the mucous membranes[عدل]

Conditions of the mucous membranes involve the moist linings of the eyes, nose, mouth, genitals, and anus.[34]

Conditions of the skin appendages[عدل]

Conditions of the skin appendages are those affecting the glands of the skin, hair, nails, and arrector pili muscles.[1][35]

Conditions of the subcutaneous fat[عدل]

Conditions of the subcutaneous fat are those affecting the layer of adipose tissue that lies between the dermis and underlying fascia.[36][37][38][39]

Congenital anomalies[عدل]

Cutaneous congenital anomalies are a diverse group of disorders that result from faulty morphogenesis, the biological process that forms the shape of a human body.[35][40][41]

Connective tissue diseases[عدل]

Connective tissue diseases are caused by a complex array of autoimmune responses that target or affect collagen or ground substance.[35][42]

Abnormalities of dermal fibrous and elastic tissue[عدل]

Abnormalities of dermal fibrous and elastic tissue are caused by problems in the regulation of collagen synthesis and/or degradation.[35][43]

Dermal and subcutaneous growths[عدل]

Dermal and subcutaneous growths result from (1) reactive or neoplastic proliferation of cellular components of the dermis or subcutaneous tissue, or (2) neoplasms invading or aberrantly present in the dermis.[1][35]

Dermatitis[عدل]

Dermatitis is a general term for "inflammation of the skin".[44]

Atopic[عدل]

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic dermatitis associated with a hereditary tendency to develop allergies to food and inhalant substances.[45][46][47]

  • Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema, disseminated neurodermatitis, flexural eczema, infantile eczema, prurigo diathsique)

Contact[عدل]

Contact dermatitis is caused by certain substances coming in contact with the skin.[48][49][50]

Eczema[عدل]

Eczema refers to a broad range of conditions that begin as spongiotic dermatitis and may progress to a lichenified stage.[26][51]

Pustular[عدل]

Pustular dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin that presents with pustular lesions.[26][52]

Seborrheic[عدل]

Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, superficial, inflammatory disease characterized by scaling on an erythematous base.[53]

Disturbances of pigmentation[عدل]

Disturbances of human pigmentation, either loss or reduction, may be related to loss of melanocytes or the inability of melanocytes to produce melanin or transport melanosomes correctly.[54][55][56]

Drug eruptions[عدل]

Drug eruptions are adverse drug reactions that present with cutaneous manifestations.[57][58][59]

Endocrine-related[عدل]

Endocrine conditions often present with cutaneous findings as the skin interacts with the endocrine system in many ways.[60][61]

Eosinophilic[عدل]

Eosinophilic cutaneous conditions encompass a wide variety of diseases that are characterized histologically by the presence of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate, or evidence of eosinophil degranulation.[62][63]

Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts[عدل]

Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts are skin lesions that develop from the epidermal layer of the skin.[8][26]

Erythemas[عدل]

Erythemas are reactive skin conditions in which there is blanchable redness.[1][9]

Genodermatoses[عدل]

Genodermatoses are inherited genetic skin conditions often grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene, and polygenetic.[64][65]

Infection-related[عدل]

Infection-related cutaneous conditions may be caused by bacteria, fungi, yeast, viruses, and/or parasites.[26][66]

Bacterium-related[عدل]

Bacterium-related cutaneous conditions often have distinct morphologic characteristics that may be an indication of a generalized systemic process or simply an isolated superficial infection.[66][67]

Mycobacterium-related[عدل]

Mycobacterium-related cutaneous conditions are caused by Mycobacterium infections.[66][68]

Mycosis-related[عدل]

Mycosis-related cutaneous conditions are caused by fungi or yeasts, and may present as either a superficial or deep infection of the skin, hair, and/or nails.[66]

Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites[عدل]

Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites in humans are caused by several groups of organisms belonging to the following phyla: Annelida, Arthropoda, مرجانيات, Chordata, Cnidaria, Cyanobacteria, Echinodermata, Nemathelminthes, Platyhelminthes, and Protozoa.[66][69]

Virus-related[عدل]

Virus-related cutaneous conditions are caused by two main groups of viruses–DNA and RNA types–both of which are obligatory intracellular parasites.[66][70]

Lichenoid eruptions[عدل]

Lichenoid eruptions are dermatoses related to the unique, common inflammatory disorder lichen planus, which affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails, and hair.[71][72][73]

Lymphoid-related[عدل]

Lymphoid-related cutaneous conditions are a group of disorders characterized by collections of lymphocyte cells within the skin.[74]

Melanocytic nevi and neoplasms[عدل]

Melanocytic nevi and neoplasms are caused by either a proliferation of (1) melanocytes, or (2) nevus cells, a form of melanocyte that lack dendritic processes.[75][76]

Melanoma[عدل]

Melanoma is a malignant proliferation of melanocytes and the most aggressive type of skin cancer.[77][78][79]

Monocyte- and macrophage-related[عدل]

Monocyte- and macrophage-related cutaneous conditions are characterized histologically by infiltration of the skin by monocyte and/or macrophage cells,[10] often divided into several categories, including granulomatous disease,[80] histiocytoses,[81] and sarcoidosis.[82]

Mucinoses[عدل]

Mucinoses are a group of conditions caused by dermal fibroblasts producing abnormally large amounts of mucopolysaccharides.[34]

Neurocutaneous[عدل]

Neurocutaneous conditions are due organic nervous system disease or are psychiatric in etiology.[83][84]

Noninfectious immunodeficiency-related[عدل]

Noninfectious immunodeficiency-related cutaneous conditions are caused by T-cell and/or B-cell dysfunction.[85][86]

Nutrition-related[عدل]

Nutrition-related cutaneous conditions are caused by malnutrition due to an improper or inadequate diet.[87][88]

Papulosquamous hyperkeratotic[عدل]

Papulosquamous hyperkeratotic cutaneous conditions are those that present with papules and scales caused by a thickening of the stratum corneum.[9]

Palmoplantar keratodermas[عدل]

Palmoplantar keratodermas are a diverse group of hereditary and acquired keratodermas in which there is hyperkeratosis of the skin of the palms and soles.[89]

  • Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa (keratoelastoidosis marginalis)
  • Aquagenic keratoderma (acquired aquagenic palmoplantar keratoderma, aquagenic syringeal acrokeratoderma, aquagenic wrinkling of the palms, transient reactive papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma)
  • Bart–Pumphrey syndrome (palmoplantar keratoderma with knuckle pads and leukonychia and deafness)
  • Camisa disease
  • Carvajal syndrome (striate palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and cardiomyopathy, striate palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy)
  • Corneodermatoosseous syndrome (CDO syndrome)
  • Diffuse epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (palmoplantar keratoderma cum degeneratione granulosa Vörner, Vörner's epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, Vörner keratoderma)
  • Diffuse nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (diffuse orthohyperkeratotic keratoderma, hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma, keratosis extremitatum progrediens, keratosis palmoplantaris diffusa circumscripta, tylosis, Unna–Thost disease, Unna–Thost keratoderma)
  • Erythrokeratodermia variabilis (erythrokeratodermia figurata variabilis, keratosis extremitatum progrediens, keratosis palmoplantaris transgrediens et progrediens, Mendes da Costa syndrome, Mendes da Costa type erythrokeratodermia, progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma)
  • Focal acral hyperkeratosis (acrokeratoelastoidosis lichenoides, degenerative collagenous plaques of the hand)
  • Focal palmoplantar and gingival keratosis
  • Focal palmoplantar keratoderma with oral mucosal hyperkeratosis (focal epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, hereditary painful callosities, hereditary painful callosity syndrome, keratosis follicularis, keratosis palmoplantaris nummularis, nummular epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma)
  • Haim–Munk syndrome (palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis and arachnodactyly and acro-osteolysis)
  • Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (alopecia congenita with keratosis palmoplantaris, Clouston syndrome, Clouston's hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, Fischer–Jacobsen–Clouston syndrome, keratosis palmaris with drumstick fingers, palmoplantar keratoderma and clubbing)
  • Howel–Evans syndrome (familial keratoderma with carcinoma of the esophagus, focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma with carcinoma of the esophagus, palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasia type III, palmoplantar keratoderma associated with esophageal cancer, tylosis, tylosis–esophageal carcinoma)
  • Hystrix-like ichthyosis–deafness syndrome (HID syndrome)
  • Keratoderma climactericum (acquired plantar keratoderma, climacteric keratoderma, Haxthausen's disease)
  • Keratosis punctata palmaris et plantaris (Buschke–Fischer–Brauer disease, Davis Colley disease, keratoderma disseminatum palmaris et plantaris, keratosis papulosa, keratoderma punctatum, keratodermia punctata, keratoma hereditarium dissipatum palmare et plantare, palmar and plantar seed dermatoses, palmar keratoses, papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma, punctate keratoderma,punctate keratoses of the palms and soles, maculosa disseminata)
  • Keratitis–ichthyosis–deafness syndrome (erythrokeratodermia progressiva Burns, ichthyosiform erythroderma with corneal involvement and deafness, KID syndrome)
  • Mal de Meleda (acral keratoderma, Gamborg–Nielsen keratoderma, mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma of the Gamborg–Nielsen type, palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasia type VIII, palmoplantar keratoderma of the Norrbotten type)
  • Naxos syndrome (diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and cardiomyopathy, diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma with woolly hair and arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy of Naxos, Naxos disease)
  • Olmsted syndrome (mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma with periorificial keratotic plaques, mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma with periorificial plaques, polykeratosis of Touraine)
  • Pachyonychia congenita type I (Jadassohn–Lewandowsky syndrome)
  • Pachyonychia congenita type II (Jackson–Lawler pachyonychia congenita, Jackson–Sertoli syndrome)
  • Palmoplantar keratoderma and spastic paraplegia (Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease with palmoplantar keratoderma and nail dystrophy)
  • Palmoplantar keratoderma of Sybert (Greither palmoplantar keratoderma, Greither syndrome, keratosis extremitatum hereditaria progrediens, keratosis palmoplantaris transgrediens et progrediens, Sybert keratoderma, transgrediens and progrediens palmoplantar keratoderma)
  • Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome (palmoplantar keratoderma with periodontitis)
  • Porokeratosis plantaris discreta
  • Punctate palmoplantar keratoderma
  • Schöpf–Schulz–Passarge syndrome (eyelid cysts with palmoplantar keratoderma and hypodontia and hypotrichosis)
  • Scleroatrophic syndrome of Huriez (Huriez syndrome, palmoplantar keratoderma with scleroatrophy, palmoplantar keratoderma with sclerodactyly, scleroatrophic and keratotic dermatosis of the limbs, sclerotylosis)
  • Striate palmoplantar keratoderma (acral keratoderma, Brünauer–Fuhs–Siemens type of palmoplantar keratoderma, focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, keratosis palmoplantaris varians, palmoplantar keratoderma areata, palmoplantar keratoderma striata, Wachter keratoderma, Wachters palmoplantar keratoderma)
  • Spiny keratoderma (porokeratosis punctata palmaris et plantaris, punctate keratoderma, punctate porokeratosis of the palms and soles)
  • Tyrosinemia type II (oculocutaneous tyrosinemia, Richner–Hanhart syndrome)
  • Vohwinkel syndrome (keratoderma hereditaria mutilans, keratoma hereditaria mutilans, mutilating keratoderma of Vohwinkel, mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma)

Pregnancy-related[عدل]

Pregnancy-related cutaneous conditions are a group of skin changes observed during pregnancy.[90][91]

Pruritic[عدل]

Pruritus, commonly known as itchiness, is a sensation exclusive to the skin, and characteristic of many skin conditions.[92][93]

Psoriasis[عدل]

Psoriasis is a common, chronic, and recurrent inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by circumscribed, erythematous, dry, scaling plaques.[94][95][96]

Reactive neutrophilic[عدل]

Reactive neutrophilic cutaneous conditions constitute a spectrum of disease mediated by neutrophils, and typically associated with underlying diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and hematologic malignancy.[97][98]

Recalcitrant palmoplantar eruptions[عدل]

Recalcitrant palmoplantar eruptions are skin conditions of the palms and soles which are resistant to treatment.[34]

  • Dermatitis repens (acrodermatitis continua, acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau, acrodermatitis continua suppurativa Hallopeau, acrodermatitis perstans, dermatitis repens Crocker, Hallopeau's acrodermatitis, Hallopeau's acrodermatitis continua, pustular acrodermatitis)
  • Infantile acropustulosis (acropustulosis of infancy)
  • Palmoplantar pustulosis (persistent palmoplantar pustulosis, pustular psoriasis of the Barber type, pustular psoriasis of the extremities, pustulosis of palms and soles, pustulosis palmaris et plantaris)
  • Pustular bacterid

Resulting from errors in metabolism[عدل]

Skin conditions resulting from errors in metabolism are caused by enzymatic defects that lead to an accumulation or deficiency of various cellular components, including, but not limited to, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[16]

Resulting from physical factors[عدل]

Skin conditions resulting from physical factors occur from a number of causes, including, but not limited to, hot and cold temperatures, friction, and moisture.[34][99][100]

Ionizing radiation-induced[عدل]

Ionizing radiation-induced cutaneous conditions result from exposure to ionizing radiation.[101]

Urticaria and angioedema[عدل]

Urticaria is a vascular reaction of the skin characterized by the appearance of wheals, which are firm, elevated swelling of the skin.[102] Angioedema, which can occur alone or with urticaria, is characterized by a well-defined, edematous swelling that involves subcutaneous tissues, abdominal organs, and/or upper airway.[103]

Vascular-related[عدل]

Vascular-related cutaneous conditions result from dysfunction of the blood and/or blood vessels in the dermis, or lymphatics in the subcutaneous tissues.[9][104][105]

Footnotes[عدل]

  1. ^ Any given cutaneous condition is only included once within this list.
  2. ^ Parentheticals are used to indicate other names by which a condition is known. If there are multiple alternative names for a condition, they are separated by commas within the parenthetical.
  3. ^ Citations for any given condition name and/or alternative name(s) may be found within the condition's respective article.
  4. ^ This list uses American English; therefore, the symbols æ and œ, which are common to British English, are not used, but, rather, simplified to a single e. For example, the spelling of nevus is favored over nævus, edema over œdema, and so forth. For more information, see American and British English differences.
  5. ^ Non-English names are included within this list when those terms are found in English medical literature. Inclusion of acne excoriée des jeunes filles (French), Frambösie (German), and parangi (Malay) represent examples of this convention.
  6. ^ Abbreviations for condition names commonly described in medical literature with an acronym or initialism are included within this list.
  7. ^ Within this list, the term immunoglobulin is abbreviated to Ig when used as a prefix to a specific antibody isotype (i.e. غلوبيولين مناعي A, جسم مضاد, كريين مناعي هـ, كريين مناعي ج, and كريين مناعي م).
  8. ^ Within this list, the terms human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are abbreviated to فيروس العوز المناعي البشري and AIDS, respectively.

See also[عدل]

References[عدل]

  1. أ ب ت ث ج Miller, Jeffrey H.; Marks, James G. (2006). Lookingbill and Marks' Principles of Dermatology. Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-3185-5. 
  2. ^ Lippens S, Hoste E, Vandenabeele P, Agostinis P, Declercq W؛ Hoste؛ Vandenabeele؛ Agostinis؛ Declercq (April 2009). "Cell death in the skin". Apoptosis. 14 (4): 549–69. PMID 19221876. doi:10.1007/s10495-009-0324-z. 
  3. أ ب ت ث Burns, Tony; et al. (2006) Rook's Textbook of Dermatology CD-ROM. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3130-6.
  4. ^ Paus R, Cotsarelis G؛ Cotsarelis (1999). "The biology of hair follicles". N Engl J Med. 341 (7): 491–7. PMID 10441606. doi:10.1056/NEJM199908123410706. 
  5. ^ Goldsmith, Lowell A. (1983). Biochemistry and physiology of the skin. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-261253-0. 
  6. ^ Fuchs E (February 2007). "Scratching the surface of skin development". Nature. 445 (7130): 834–42. Bibcode:2007Natur.445..834F. PMC 2405926Freely accessible. PMID 17314969. doi:10.1038/nature05659. 
  7. ^ Fuchs E, Horsley V؛ Horsley (April 2008). "More than one way to skin .". Genes Dev. 22 (8): 976–85. PMC 2732395Freely accessible. PMID 18413712. doi:10.1101/gad.1645908. 
  8. أ ب ت ث ج Freedberg, Irwin M.;؛ وآخرون. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0. 
  9. أ ب ت ث Bolognia, Jean L.;؛ وآخرون. (2007). Dermatology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. 
  10. أ ب ت ث Rapini, Ronald P. (2005). Practical dermatopathology. Elsevier Mosby. ISBN 0-323-01198-5. 
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Further reading[عدل]

  • Andrews RM, McCarthy J, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ (December 2009). "Skin disorders, including pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections". Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 56 (6): 1421–40. PMID 19962029. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2009.09.002. 
  • Anthony J. Mancini; Amy S. Paller (2005). Hurwitz's Clinical Pediatric Dermatology: A Textbook of Skin Disorders of Childhood And Adolescence. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-0498-6. 

External links[عدل]