وحدة:Lua class

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
اذهب إلى التنقل اذهب إلى البحث
توثيق الوحدة[أنشئ] [استخدامات] [قوالب]
يمكن إنشاء توثيق الوحدة في صفحة الشرح
local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') -- overridden for new types and exceptions
local warn = require('Module:Warning')

local mode_mt = {__mode='k'}
local _classes, _instances = {}, {} -- registry mapping all private classes and instances to their internal counterparts
setmetatable(_classes, mode_mt); setmetatable(_instances, mode_mt)
local classes, instances = {}, {} -- same but public -> private
setmetatable(classes, mode_mt); setmetatable(instances, mode_mt)
local inst_private_mts, inst_public_mts = {}, {} -- for each class since they are mostly immutable

local una_metamethods = {__ipairs=1, __pairs=1, __tostring=1, __unm=1}
local bin_metamethods = {__add=1, __concat=1, __div=1, __eq=1, __le=1, __lt=1, __mod=1, __mul=1, __pow=1, __sub=1}
local oth_metamethods = {__call=1, __index=1, __newindex=1, __init=1}
local not_metamethods = {__name=1, __bases=1, __methods=1, __classmethods=1, __staticmethods=1, __normalmethods=1, __slots=1, __protected=1}
	-- __class and __hash


local function objtostr(obj)
	local copy = {}
	for key, val in pairs(obj) do
		copy[key] = type(val) == 'function' and 'function' or val
	end
	return mw.text.jsonEncode(copy, mw.text.JSON_PRETTY)
end

local inst_mt = {
	__index = function (self, key)
		if tonumber(key) or key == 'hash' or key == '__hash' then -- don't search numeric keys in classes and hash isn't inheritable
			return nil
		end
		return self.__class[key] -- key could be invalid here without issues as __index(cls_private, key) would handle it
	end,
	__tostring = objtostr--
}

local function private_read(self_private, key)
	return _instances[self_private][key] -- instance should be clean of invalid keys so that __index(cls_private, key) handles them
end

local function private_read_custom(self_private, key)
	if not_metamethods[key] then
		error(("AttributeError: unauthorized read attempt of internal '%s'"):format(key), 2)
	end
	local self = _instances[self_private]
	local value = self.__class.__index(self_private, key) -- custom __index can handle invalid keys
	if value == nil then
		return self[key] -- same reason of private_read for not checking key validity
	end
	return value
end

local function private_write(self_private, key, value)
	libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForIndex(key, {'string', 'number'})
	local self = _instances[self_private]
	if type(key) == 'string' then
		local cls = _classes[self.__class]
		if cls.__normalmethods[key] or key:sub(1,2) == '__' and key ~= '__hash' then
			error(("AttributeError: forbidden write attempt {%s: %s} to immutable method or invalid key"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
		elseif key:find('[^_%w]') or key:find('^%d') then
			error(("AttributeError: invalid attribute name '%s'"):format(key), 2)
		elseif key == '__hash' and self.__hash ~= nil then
			error("AttributeError: forbidden update attempt to immutable __hash", 2)
		end
	end
	self[key] = value
end

local function private_write_custom(self_private, key, value)
	local self = _instances[self_private]
	local cls = _classes[self.__class]
	local keyType = type(key)
	if keyType == 'string' and (cls.__normalmethods[key] or key:sub(1,2) == '__' and key ~= '__hash') then
		error(("AttributeError: forbidden write attempt {%s: %s} to immutable method or invalid key"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
	end
	if cls.__newindex(self_private, key, value) == false then -- custom __newindex can handle invalid keys
		libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForIndex(key, {'string', 'number'})
		if keyType == 'string' then
			if key:find('[^_%w]') or key:find('^%d') then
				error(("AttributeError: invalid attribute name '%s'"):format(key), 2)
			elseif key == '__hash' and self.__hash ~= nil then
				error("AttributeError: forbidden update attempt to immutable __hash", 2)
			end
		end
		self[key] = value
	end
end

local function public_read(self_public, key)
	if type(key) == 'string' and key:sub(1,1) == '_' then
		error(("AttributeError: unauthorized read attempt of nonpublic '%s'"):format(key), 2)
	end
	return _instances[instances[self_public]][key] -- same reason of private_read...
end

local function public_read_custom(self_public, key)
	if type(key) == 'string' and key:sub(1,1) == '_' then
		error(("AttributeError: unauthorized read attempt of nonpublic '%s'"):format(key), 2)
	end
	local self = _instances[instances[self_public]]
	local value = self.__class.__index(instances[self_public], key)
	if value == nil then
		return self[key] -- same reason of private_read...
	end
	return value
end

local function public_write(self_public, key, value)
	local self = _instances[instances[self_public]]
	local cls = _classes[self.__class]
	if type(key) == 'string' then
		if key:sub(1,1) == '_' then
			error(("AttributeError: unauthorized write attempt of nonpublic {%s: %s}"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
		elseif cls.__normalmethods[key] then
			error(("AttributeError: forbidden write attempt {%s: %s} to immutable method"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
		end
	end
	if self[key] == nil and not cls.__slots[key] then -- if instance and __slots are valid, no danger of creating invalid attributes
		libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForIndex(key, {'string', 'number'}) -- otherwise error message would not make sense
		error(("AttributeError: public attribute creation attempt {%s: %s} not expected by __slots"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
	end
	self[key] = value
end

local function public_write_custom(self_public, key, value)
	local self = _instances[instances[self_public]]
	local cls = _classes[self.__class]
	if type(key) == 'string' then
		if key:sub(1,1) == '_' then
			error(("AttributeError: unauthorized write attempt of nonpublic {%s: %s}"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
		elseif cls.__normalmethods[key] then
			error(("AttributeError: forbidden write attempt {%s: %s} to immutable method"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
		end
	end
	if cls.__newindex(instances[self_public], key, value) == false then
		if self[key] == nil and not cls.__slots[key] then
			libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForIndex(key, {'string', 'number'}) -- otherwise error message...
			error(("AttributeError: public attribute creation attempt {%s: %s} not expected by __slots"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
		end
		self[key] = value
	end
end

local function constructor(wrapper, ...)
	if select('#', ...) ~= 1 or type(...) ~= 'table' then
		error("SyntaxError: incorrect instance constructor syntax, should be: Class{arg1, arg2..., kw1=kwarg1, kw2=kwarg2...}", 2)
	end
	local self = {} -- __new
	local cls_private = classes[wrapper] or wrapper
	self.__class = cls_private
	setmetatable(self, inst_mt)

	local self_private = {} -- wrapper
	local cls = _classes[cls_private]

	local mt = inst_private_mts[cls]
	if not mt then
		mt = {}
		mt.__index = cls.__index and private_read_custom or private_read
		mt.__newindex = cls.__newindex and private_write_custom or private_write
		for key in pairs(una_metamethods) do
			mt[key] = cls[key]
		end
		mt.__call = cls.__call
		mt.__metatable = "unauthorized access attempt of wrapper object metatable"

		inst_private_mts[cls] = mt
	end

	setmetatable(self_private, mt)
	_instances[self_private] = self

	local __init = cls.__init
	if __init and __init(self_private, ...) then
		error("TypeError: __init must not return a var-list")
	end

	for key in pairs(cls.__methods) do
		local func = cls[key] -- index once to save time in future calls
		self[key] = function (...) return func(self_private, ...) end
	end

	if cls._hash then -- not inheritable
		self.hash = function () return cls._hash(self_private) end
		self.hash() -- construction of self is finalized at this point, so immutable hash can be safely set
	end

	local self_public = {}

	mt = inst_public_mts[cls]
	if not mt then
		mt = {}
		mt.__index = cls.__index and public_read_custom or public_read
		mt.__newindex = cls.__newindex and public_write_custom or public_write
		for key in pairs(una_metamethods) do
			if cls[key] then
				local func = cls[key]
				mt[key] = function (a) return func(instances[a]) end
			end
		end
		for key in pairs(bin_metamethods) do
			if cls[key] then
				local func = cls[key]
				mt[key] = function (a, b) return func(instances[a], instances[b]) end
			end
		end
		if cls.__call then
			local func = cls.__call
			mt.__call = function (self_public, ...) return func(instances[self_public], ...) end
		end
		mt.__metatable = "unauthorized access attempt of wrapper object metatable"

		inst_public_mts[cls] = mt
	end

	setmetatable(self_public, mt)
	instances[self_public] = self_private
	return self_public
end


local function multi_inheritance(cls, key)
	for _, base in ipairs(cls.__bases) do
		if key:sub(1,1) ~= '_' or base.__protected[key] or key:sub(1,2) == '__' and key ~= '__name' and key ~= '__hash' then
			local value = base[key]
			if value ~= nil then
				return value
			end
		end
	end
end

local cls_mt = {
	__index = multi_inheritance,
	__tostring = objtostr--
}

local cls_private_mt = {
	__call = constructor,
	__index = function (cls_private, key)
		if type(key) ~= 'string' then
			warn(("AttributeWarning: index '%s' type should be string, %s given"):format(tostring(key), type(key)), 2)
		elseif not_metamethods[key] then
			error(("AttributeError: unauthorized read attempt of internal '%s'"):format(key), 2)
		elseif key:find('[^_%w]') or key:find('^%d') then
			warn(("AttributeWarning: index '%s' should be a valid Lua name"):format(key), 2)
		end
		local cls = _classes[cls_private]
		local value = cls[key]
		if not cls.__slots[key] then
			local valueType = type(value)
			if valueType == 'table' then
				return mw.clone(value) -- because class attributes are immutable by default
			elseif valueType == 'set' then --should list be clone or deep copy?
				return value.copy()
			end
		end
		return value
	end,
	__newindex = function (cls_private, key, value)
		local cls = _classes[cls_private]
		if not cls.__slots[key] and key ~= '__hash' then -- __slots should be valid, so no need to check key validity before
			libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForIndex(key, {'string'}) -- otherwise error message would not make sense
			error(("AttributeError: write attempt {%s: %s} not expected by __slots"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
		elseif key == '__hash' and cls.__hash ~= nil then
			error("AttributeError: forbidden update attempt to immutable __hash", 2)
		end
		cls[key] = value
	end,
	__metatable = "unauthorized access attempt of wrapper object metatable"
}

local cls_public_mt = {
	__call = constructor,
	__index = function (cls_public, key)
		if type(key) ~= 'string' then
			warn(("AttributeWarning: index '%s' type should be string, %s given"):format(tostring(key), type(key)), 2)
		elseif key:sub(1,1) == '_' then
			error(("AttributeError: unauthorized read attempt of nonpublic '%s'"):format(key), 2)
		elseif key:find('[^_%w]') or key:find('^%d') then
			warn(("AttributeWarning: index '%s' should be a valid Lua name"):format(key), 2)
		end
		local value = _classes[classes[cls_public]][key]
		local valueType = type(value)
		if valueType == 'table' then
			return mw.clone(value) -- all class attributes are immutable in the public scope
		elseif valueType == 'set' then
			return value.copy()
		end
		return value
	end,
	__newindex = function (cls_public, key, value)
		libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForIndex(key, {'string'}) -- otherwise error message...
		error(("AttributeError: forbidden write attempt of {%s: %s}; a class is immutable in public scope"):format(key, tostring(value)), 2)
	end,
	__metatable = "unauthorized access attempt of wrapper object metatable"
}

local function hash(obj_private)
	if not obj_private.__hash then -- not inheritable
		obj_private.__hash = tonumber('0x' .. mw.hash.hashValue('fnv1a32', tostring(os.time() + math.random())))
	end
	return obj_private.__hash
end

function class(...)
	local args = {...}
	local cls = {} -- internal

	local idx
	if type(args[1]) == 'string' then
		local __name = args[1]
		if __name:find('%W') or __name:find('^%d') then
			error(("ValueError: class '%s' must be a valid Lua name without '_'s"):format(__name), 2)
		end
		cls.__name = __name
		idx = 2
	else
		idx = 1
	end

	cls.__bases = {}
	for i = idx, #args-1 do
		libraryUtil.checkType('class', i, args[i], 'class')
		cls.__bases[#cls.__bases+1] = _classes[classes[args[i]]]
	end
	setmetatable(cls, cls_mt)

	local kwargs = args[#args]
	libraryUtil.checkType('class', #args, kwargs, 'table')
	if kwargs.__name ~= nil or kwargs.__bases ~= nil then
		error("ValueError: __name and unpacked __bases must be passed as optional first args to 'class'", 2)
	end

	cls.__slots = {}
	local mt = {
		__index = function (__slots, key) -- multi_inheritance
			for _, base in ipairs(cls.__bases) do
				if (key:sub(1,1) ~= '_' or base.__protected[key]) and base.__slots[key] then
					return true
				end
			end
		end
	}
	setmetatable(cls.__slots, mt)
	if kwargs.__slots ~= nil then
		libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg('class', '__slots', kwargs.__slots, 'table')
		for i, slot in ipairs(kwargs.__slots) do
			libraryUtil.checkType('__slots', i, slot, 'string')
			if slot:find('[^_%w]') or slot:find('^%d') then
				error(("ValueError: invalid slot name '%s'"):format(slot), 2)
			elseif slot:sub(1,2) == '__' then
				error(("ValueError: slot '%s' has forbidden namespace"):format(slot), 2)
			elseif rawget(cls.__slots, slot) then
				warn(("ValueWarning: duplicated slot '%s'"):format(slot), 2)
			elseif kwargs[slot] ~= nil or cls.__slots[slot] then
				error(("ValueError: slot '%s' is predefined in class or allocated in __slots of bases"):format(slot), 2)
			end
			cls.__slots[slot] = true
		end
		kwargs.__slots = nil
	end

	cls.__protected = {}
	mt = {
		__index = function (__protected, key)
			for _, base in ipairs(cls.__bases) do
				if base.__protected[key] then
					return true
				end
			end
		end
	}
	setmetatable(cls.__protected, mt)
	if kwargs.__protected ~= nil then
		libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg('class', '__protected', kwargs.__protected, 'table')
		for i, key in ipairs(kwargs.__protected) do
			libraryUtil.checkType('__protected', i, key, 'string')
			if key:sub(1,1) ~= '_' or key:sub(2,2) == '_' then
				error(("ValueError: the namespace of '%s' is not manually protectable"):format(key), 2)
			elseif key == '_hash' then
				error("ValueError: forbidden attempt to protect _hash which is not inheritable", 2)
			elseif rawget(cls.__protected, key) then
				warn(("ValueWarning: duplicated '%s' in __protected"):format(key), 2)
			elseif cls.__protected[key] then
				error(("ValueError: '%s' is already allocated in __protected of bases"):format(key), 2)
			elseif kwargs[key] == nil then -- key validity will be checked further ahead
				error(("ValueError: attempt to protect undefined '%s'"):format(key), 2)
			end
			cls.__protected[key] = true
		end
		kwargs.__protected = nil
	end

	if kwargs.__methods ~= nil then
		error("ValueError: __classmethods and __staticmethods should be passed as optional attributes instead of __methods", 2)
	elseif kwargs.hash ~= nil or kwargs.__hash ~= nil then
		error("ValueError: forbidden attempt to define hash or __hash which are set internally", 2)
	end

	cls.__normalmethods = {} -- used in instance write methods
	mt = {
		__index = function (__normalmethods, key)
			return cls.__methods[key] or cls.__classmethods[key] or cls.__staticmethods[key]
		end
	}
	setmetatable(cls.__normalmethods, mt)

	local cls_private = {} -- wrapper
	setmetatable(cls_private, cls_private_mt)
	_classes[cls_private] = cls

	cls.__classmethods = {}
	mt = {
		__index = function (__classmethods, key)
			for _, base in ipairs(cls.__bases) do
				if (key:sub(1,1) ~= '_' or base.__protected[key]) and base.__classmethods[key] then
					return true
				end
			end
		end
	}
	setmetatable(cls.__classmethods, mt)
	if kwargs.__classmethods ~= nil then
		libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg('class', '__classmethods', kwargs.__classmethods, 'table')
		for i, key in ipairs(kwargs.__classmethods) do
			libraryUtil.checkType('__classmethods', i, key, 'string')
			if key:find('[^_%w]') or key:find('^%d') then
				error(("ValueError: invalid classmethod name '%s'"):format(key), 2)
			elseif key:sub(1,2) == '__' then
				error(("ValueError: classmethod '%s' has forbidden namespace"):format(key), 2)
			elseif key == '_hash' then
				error("ValueError: invalid classmethod _hash, classes have their own hash classmethod", 2)
			elseif rawget(cls.__classmethods, key) then
				error(("ValueError: duplicated '%s' in __classmethods"):format(key), 2)
			elseif not cls.__classmethods[key] and cls[key] ~= nil then
				error(("ValueError: forbidden attempt to convert '%s' non-classmethod to classmethod"):format(key), 2)
			end
			libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg('class', key, kwargs[key], 'function')

			cls.__classmethods[key] = true
			local func = kwargs[key]
			cls[key] = function (...) return func(cls_private, ...) end
			kwargs[key] = nil
		end
		kwargs.__classmethods = nil
	end

	cls.__normalmethods.hash = true
	cls.hash = function () return hash(cls_private) end -- classes are always hashable so this is independent from _hash
	cls.hash()

	if kwargs.__eq == nil then
		if kwargs._hash ~= nil then
			warn("ValueWarning: _hash is defined but not __eq, which is expected", 2)
		else
			kwargs._hash = hash
		end
	end
	if kwargs._hash ~= nil then
		libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg('class', '_hash', kwargs._hash, 'function')
		cls.__normalmethods._hash = true
		cls._hash = kwargs._hash
		kwargs._hash = nil
	end

	cls.__staticmethods = {}
	mt = {
		__index = function (__staticmethods, key)
			for _, base in ipairs(cls.__bases) do
				if (key:sub(1,1) ~= '_' or base.__protected[key]) and base.__staticmethods[key] then
					return true
				end
			end
		end
	}
	setmetatable(cls.__staticmethods, mt)
	if kwargs.__staticmethods ~= nil then
		libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg('class', '__staticmethods', kwargs.__staticmethods, 'table')
		for i, key in ipairs(kwargs.__staticmethods) do
			libraryUtil.checkType('__staticmethods', i, key, 'string')
			if key:sub(1,2) == '__' then
				error(("ValueError: staticmethod '%s' has forbidden namespace"):format(key), 2)
			elseif rawget(cls.__staticmethods, key) then
				warn(("ValueWarning: duplicated staticmethod '%s'"):format(key), 2)
			elseif not cls.__staticmethods[key] and cls[key] ~= nil then
				error(("ValueError: forbidden attempt to convert '%s' non-staticmethod to staticmethod"):format(key), 2)
			end
			libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg('class', key, kwargs[key], 'function')
			cls.__staticmethods[key] = true
		end
		kwargs.__staticmethods = nil
	end

	cls.__methods = {}
	for _, base in ipairs(cls.__bases) do
		for key in pairs(base.__methods) do
			if key:sub(1,1) ~= '_' or base.__protected[key] then
				cls.__methods[key] = true
			end
		end
	end

	local valid = false
	for key, val in pairs(kwargs) do
		if type(key) ~= 'string' then
			error(("TypeError: invalid attribute name '%s' (string expected, got %s)"):format(tostring(key), type(key)), 2)
		elseif key:find('[^_%w]') or key:find('^%d') then
			error(("ValueError: invalid attribute name '%s'"):format(key), 2)
		elseif key:sub(1,2) == '__' and not una_metamethods[key] and not bin_metamethods[key] and not oth_metamethods[key] then
			error(("ValueError: unrecognized metamethod or unauthorized internal attribute {%s: %s}"):format(key, tostring(val)), 2)
		end
		cls[key] = val
		if type(val) == 'function' then
			if not cls.__staticmethods[key] and key:sub(1,2) ~= '__' then -- classmethods and _hash were already removed from kwargs
				cls.__methods[key] = true
			end
			if key ~= '__init' then -- __init does not qualify to a functional/proper class
				valid = true
			end
		end
	end
	if not valid then
		error("ValueError: a (sub)class must have at least one functional method", 2)
	end

	local cls_public = {}
	setmetatable(cls_public, cls_public_mt)
	classes[cls_public] = cls_private
	return cls_public
end


local function rissubclass2(class, classinfo)
	if class == classinfo then
		return true
	end
	for _, base in ipairs(class.__bases) do
		if rissubclass2(base, classinfo) then
			return true
		end
	end
	return false
end

local function rissubclass1(class, classinfo, parent, level)
	libraryUtil.checkTypeMulti(parent, 2, classinfo, {'class', 'table'}, level)
	if classes[classinfo] then
		return rissubclass2(class, _classes[classes[classinfo]])
	elseif _classes[classinfo] then
		return rissubclass2(class, _classes[classinfo])
	end
	for i = 1, #classinfo do
		if rissubclass1(class, classinfo[i], parent, level+1) then
			return true
		end
	end
	return false
end

function issubclass(class, classinfo)
	libraryUtil.checkType('issubclass', 1, class, 'class')
	class = classes[class] or class
	return rissubclass1(_classes[class], classinfo, 'issubclass', 4)
end

function isinstance(instance, classinfo)
	if not instances[instance] and not _instances[instance] then -- because named (ClassName) instances would fail with checkType
		if classinfo == nil then
			return false
		end
		error(("TypeError: bad argument #1 to 'isinstance' (instance expected, got %s)"):format(type(instance)), 2)
	end
	if classinfo == nil then
		return true
	end
	instance = instances[instance] or instance
	return rissubclass1(_classes[instance.__class], classinfo, 'isinstance', 4)
end


local _type = type
type = function (value)
	local t = _type(value)
	if t == 'table' then
		if classes[value] or _classes[value] then
			return 'class'
		elseif instances[value] or _instances[value] then
			value = instances[value] or value
			return _classes[value.__class].__name or 'instance' -- should __name be directly readable instead?
		end
	end
	return t
end


libraryUtil.checkType = function (name, argIdx, arg, expectType, nilOk, level)
	if arg == nil and nilOk then
		return
	end
	if type(arg) ~= expectType then
		error(("TypeError: bad argument #%d to '%s' (%s expected, got %s)"):format(argIdx, name, expectType, type(arg)), level or 3)
	end
end

libraryUtil.checkTypeMulti = function (name, argIdx, arg, expectTypes, level)
	local argType = type(arg)
	for _, expectType in ipairs(expectTypes) do
		if argType == expectType then
			return
		end
	end
	local n = #expectTypes
	local typeList
	if n > 1 then
		typeList = table.concat(expectTypes, ', ', 1, n-1) .. ' or ' .. expectTypes[n]
	else
		typeList = expectTypes[1]
	end
	error(("TypeError: bad argument #%d to '%s' (%s expected, got %s)"):format(argIdx, name, typeList, type(arg)), level or 3)
end

libraryUtil.checkTypeForIndex = function (index, value, expectType, level)
	if type(value) ~= expectType then
		error(("TypeError: value for index '%s' must be %s, %s given"):format(index, expectType, type(value)), level or 3)
	end
end

libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForIndex = function (index, expectTypes, level)
	local indexType = type(index)
	for _, expectType in ipairs(expectTypes) do
		if indexType == expectType then
			return
		end
	end
	local n = #expectTypes
	local typeList
	if n > 1 then
		typeList = table.concat(expectTypes, ', ', 1, n-1) .. ' or ' .. expectTypes[n]
	else
		typeList = expectTypes[1]
	end
	error(("TypeError: index '%s' must be %s, %s given"):format(index, typeList, type(index)), level or 3)
end

libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg = function (name, argName, arg, expectType, nilOk, level)
	if arg == nil and nilOk then
		return
	end
	if type(arg) ~= expectType then
		error(("TypeError: bad named argument %s to '%s' (%s expected, got %s)"):format(argName, name, expectType, type(arg)), level or 3)
	end
end

libraryUtil.checkTypeMultiForNamedArg = function (name, argName, arg, expectTypes, level)
	local argType = type(arg)
	for _, expectType in ipairs(expectTypes) do
		if argType == expectType then
			return
		end
	end
	local n = #expectTypes
	local typeList
	if n > 1 then
		typeList = table.concat(expectTypes, ', ', 1, n-1) .. ' or ' .. expectTypes[n]
	else
		typeList = expectTypes[1]
	end
	error(("TypeError: bad named argument %s to '%s' (%s expected, got %s)"):format(argName, name, typeList, type(arg)), level or 3)
end


local function try_parser(...)
	local args = {...}
	libraryUtil.checkType('try', 1, args[1], 'function', nil, 4)
	local try_clause = args[1]

	if args[2] ~= 'except' then
		error("SyntaxError: missing required except clause", 3)
	end
	local except_clauses = {}
	local i = 3
	local argType, exceptionTypes = nil, {string=1, table=1}
	repeat
		libraryUtil.checkTypeMulti('try', i, args[i], {'string', 'table', 'function'}, 4)
		argType = type(args[i])
		if exceptionTypes[argType] then
			libraryUtil.checkType('try', i+1, args[i+1], 'function', nil, 4)
			except_clauses[#except_clauses+1] = {exceptions={}, handler=args[i+1]}
			if argType == 'string' then
				except_clauses[#except_clauses].exceptions[args[i]] = true
			else
				for _, exception in ipairs(args[i]) do
					if type(exception) ~= 'string' then
						error(("TypeError: invalid exception type in except (string expected, got %s)"):format(type(exception)), 3)
					end
					except_clauses[#except_clauses].exceptions[exception] = true
				end
			end
			i = i + 3
		else
			except_clauses[#except_clauses+1] = {exceptions={}, handler=args[i]}
			i = i + 2
			break
		end
	until args[i-1] ~= 'except'

	local else_clause, finally_clause
	if args[i-1] == 'except' then
		error("SyntaxError: except after except clause without specific exceptions, which should be the last", 3)
	elseif args[i-1] == 'else' then
		libraryUtil.checkType('try', i, args[i], 'function', nil, 4)
		else_clause = args[i]
		i = i + 2
	end
	if args[i-1] == 'finally' then
		libraryUtil.checkType('try', i, args[i], 'function', nil, 4)
		finally_clause = args[i]
		i = i + 2
	end

	if args[i-1] ~= nil then
		error(("SyntaxError: unexpected arguments #%d–#%d to 'try'"):format(i-1, #args), 3)
	end
	return try_clause, except_clauses, else_clause, finally_clause
end

function try(...)
	local try_clause, except_clauses, else_clause, finally_clause = try_parser(...)

	local function errhandler(message)
		local errtype = mw.text.split(message, ':')[1]
		local handled = false
		for _, except in ipairs(except_clauses) do
			if except.exceptions[errtype] or #except.exceptions == 0 then
				handled, message = pcall(except.handler)
				break
			end
		end
		if not handled then
			return message
		end
	end

	local success, message = xpcall(try_clause, errhandler)
	if else_clause and success then
		success, message = pcall(else_clause)
	end
	if finally_clause then
		finally_clause()
	end
	if not success and message then
		error(message, 0) -- what should be the level?
	end
end


local classes_proxy, instances_proxy = {}, {}

setmetatable(classes_proxy, {
	__index = classes, -- create function to limit access only to modules which define the requested classes and testcases pages
	__newindex = function () error("KeyError: forbidden write attempt to classes proxy", 2) end,
	__metatable = "unauthorized access attempt of classes proxy metatable"
})

setmetatable(instances_proxy, {
	__index = instances, -- create function to limit access only to testcases pages
	__newindex = function () error("KeyError: forbidden write attempt to instances proxy", 2) end,
	__metatable = "unauthorized access attempt of instances proxy metatable"
})

return {classes_proxy, instances_proxy}