وسام كوبلي

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
اذهب إلى: تصفح، ‏ ابحث
وسام كوبلي كما منحت إلى مندلييف في عام 1905.

وسام كوبلاي أحد الجوائز العلمية ومرموقة أكثر من أي الجوائز العشر الأخرى التي تقدم من قبل الجمعية الملكية وأقدمهم. قدمت لأول مرة سنة 1731.و كوسام رمفورد أسست هذه الجائزة بفضل هبة غودفري كوبلاي قدرها 100 جنيه استرليني للمؤسسة الملكية سنة 1709.و كان غودفري كوبلاي قد أنتخب عضوا في تلك المؤسسة العلمية سنة 1691.و خصص وسام كوبلاي للفيزياء وعلوم الأحياء.

قائمة الحاصلين على الوسام[عدل]

1799-1731[عدل]

السنة الصورة الاسم السبب ملحوظة
1731 Fond blanc.svg غراي, ستيفنستيفن غراي "لاختباراته الكهربائية الجديدة: - تشجيعاً له على ما أبداه من استعداد دائماً والتزامه بمشاركة اكتشافاته ومساهماته في المعرفة الطبيعية" [1]
1732 Fond blanc.svg غراي, ستيفنستيفن غراي "لتجاربه التي أجراها عام 1732" [1]
1733 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1734 John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg ديسجلوريس, جون ثيافليسجون ثيافليس ديسجلوريس "تقديراً لتجاربه العديدة التي أجراها أمام الجمعية" [2]
1735 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1736 John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg ديسجلوريس, جون ثيافليسجون ثيافليس ديسجلوريس "عن تجاربه التي أجراها هذا العام" [2]
1737 Belchier John 1706-1785.png بلتشير, جونجون بلتشير "لتجربته التي قام بها لإظهار خصائص النظام الغذائي في جذر الفوة (نبات صبغي) المسؤولة عن صباغة عظام الحيوانات الحية باللون الأحمر." [3]
1738 Fond blanc.svg فالوا, جيمسجيمس فالوا "لاختراعه محرك لنقل الأكوام، ما ساهم في وضع أسس جسر ونقله إلى وستمنستر، وقد عرض النموذج في الجمعية"
1739 Stephen Hales.jpg هايلز, ستيفنستيفن هايلز لتجاربه لاكتشاف أدوية لتفتيت الحصوات، وابتكاره مواد حافظة لحفظ اللحوم أثناء الرحلات البحرية الطويلة. [4]
1740 Fond blanc.svg ستوارت, ألكسندرألكسندر ستوارت عن محاضراته حول الحركة العضلية. وهي إضافة أخرى لخدماته إلى المجتمع في مسألة الرعاية والأمراض [5]
1741 John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg ديسجلوريس, جون ثيافليسجون ثيافليس ديسجلوريس عن تجاربه لاكتشاف خصائص الكهرباء. [2]
1742 Fond blanc.svg ميدلتون, كريستوفركريستوفر ميدلتون لملاحظاته التي سجلها أثناء محاولته لاستكشاف ممر شمالي غربي إلى جزر الهند الشرقية عبر خليج هدسون [6]
1743 Fond blanc.svg ترمبلي, أبراهامأبراهام ترمبلي "تجاربه في أعادة تكوين الهدرية"
1744 HenryBaker16981774.jpg بيكر, هنريهنري بيكر "لتجاربه المتعلقة ببلورة أو تكون جزيئات دقيقة من أجسام مالحة تحللت في المذيبات" [7].
1745 William Watson.jpg واتسون, ولياموليام واتسون "بسبب اكتشافاته المفاجئة في ظواهر الكهرباء التي ظهرت في تجاربه الأخيرة" [8]
1746 Fond blanc.svg روبنز, بنيامينبنيامين روبنز "لتجاربه النادرة في إظهار مقاومة الهواء، وسن قوانين لترسيخ معتقده في حركة المقذوفات" [9]
1747 Gowin Knight from Science & Society 10198868.jpg نايت, جوينجوين نايت "لتجاربه الفريدة جدا والتي عرضها مع كلا من المغنطة الطبيعية والصناعية" [10]
1748 James Bradley by Thomas Hudson.jpg برادلي, جيمسجيمس برادلي "بسبب اكتشافاته الرائعة في الحركة الظاهرية للنجوم الثابتة، وأسباب تلك الحركة الظاهرية" [11]
1749 John Harrison Uhrmacher.jpg هاريسون, جونجون هاريسون "بسبب اختراعاته للأجهزة التي صنعها بنفسه لقياس الزمن بدقة" [12]
1750 Edwards George 1693 1773.jpg ادواردز, جورججورج ادواردز "بسبب كتاب نادر جدا نشره لاحقا عن التاريخ الطبيعي للطيور وغيرها. - واحتوت على صور ل209 من الطيور المختلفة رسمت بأناقة وساطعة بألوانها الصحيحة وحوالي 20 لحيوانات ذوات الأربع نادرة جدا وثعابين وأسماك وحشرات." [13]
1751 John Canton from NPG.jpg كانتون, جونجون كانتون "بسبب تواصله مع الجتمع وعرضه الطريقة العجيبة لصنع المغناطيس الصناعي دون الحاجة إلى المغناطيس الطبيعي" [14]
1752 John Pringle.jpg برينغل, جونجون برينغل "بسبب تجاربه وملاحظاته المثيرة والمفيدة عن العفن والمواد المضادة للعفن" [15]
1753 BenFranklinDuplessis.jpg فرانكلين, بنجامينبنجامين فرانكلين لتجاربه الجديدة وملاحظاته المتعلقة بالكهرباء. [16]
1754 Fond blanc.svg لويس, وليموليم لويس "لتجاربه العديدة على البلاتين والتي اتجهت إلى كشف التطور التقني للذهب، والذي قد اكتمل بالكامل، ولكنه اضطر إلى التوقف عن عمل المزيد من البحوث لنقص المواد" [17]
1755 John Huxham1.jpg هوكسام, جونجون هوكسام "لتجاربه المفيدة حول الإثمد، والتي تلاها أمام الجمعية" [18]
1756 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1757 Fond blanc.svg كافنديش, لورد تشارلزلورد تشارلز كافنديش "لإختراعه المفيد لجعل ميزان الحرارة يظهر درجات الحرارة القصوى إلى البرودة الدنيا" [10]
1758 John Dollond, by Benjamin Wilson.jpg دولاند, جونجون دولاند "لتجاربه واكتشافه المتعلق بإنكسار أشعة الضوء" [19]
1759 John Smeaton.jpg سمتون, جونجون سمتون "لتجاربه حول الساقيات المائية والطواحين الهوائية" [20]
1760 Benjamin Wilson, by Benjamin Wilson.jpg ويلسون, بنيامينبنيامين ويلسون "لتجاربه الرائعة حول الكهرباء" [21]
1761 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1762 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1763 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1764 John Canton from NPG.jpg كانتون, جونجون كانتون "لتجاربه البارعة والذكية في إثبات إنضغاطية المياه وسوائل أخرى لصنع مضخات هواء ومحركات التكثيف" [14]
1765 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1766 Cavendish Henry signature.jpg براوننغ, وليموليم براوننغ

ادوارد ديلافال

هنري كافنديش
"لتجاربه حول نشاط المعادن المرنة أو الغازات الموجودة في الينابيع المعدنية وكذلك حول الغازات النتنة (براوننغ)"
"لتجاربه وملاحظاته على التوافق بين الثقالة النوعية لعدة معادن وألوانها عند دمجها مع الزجاج، والإجراءات المترتبة على ذلك. (ديلافال)"
"لورقته التي عرضها في نفس العام واحتوت على تجاربه المتعلقة بالهواء الحبيس. (كافنديش)"
[22]
1767 Fond blanc.svg إليس, جونجون إليس "لورقته التي قدمها في ذات السنة حول وجود جنس جديد في عالم الحيوان أسماه المرجان وشقائق النعمان أو مجتمع الزهورالحيوانية ووجدت في الشواطئ البحرية لجزر مهجورة" [23]
1768 Fond blanc.svg وولف, بيتربيتر وولف "لبحوثه في تقطير الأحماض والقلويات المتطايرة والمواد الأخرى" [24]
1769 William Hewson b1739.jpg هيوسن, وليموليم هيوسن "لورقتي بحث معنونة أهمية النظام اللمفاوي في البرمائيات - وأهمية الجهاز اللمفاوي في الأسماك"
1770 Sir William Hamilton by David Allan.jpg هاملتون, وليموليم هاملتون "لبحثه المعنون، رحلة إلى جبل إتنا" [25]
1771 Fond blanc.svg ريبر, ماثيوماثيو ريبر "لكتابه المعنون، البحث في قيم النقد لبلاد الإغريق والرومان"
1772 Priestley.jpg بريستلي, جوزيفجوزيف بريستلي "لتجاربه المفيدة والعديدة التي دونها في ملاحظاته"
1773 Fond blanc.svg وولش, جونجون وولش "لبحوثه في أسماك الرعاد" [26]
1774 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1775 Maskelyne Nevil.jpg ماسكلين, نيفلنيفل ماسكلين "لملاحظاته الغريبة والصعبة لمتوسط كثافة الجبال، وجرت في اسكتلندا – في جبال شيهاليون" [27]
1776 Captainjamescookportrait.jpg كوك, جيمسجيمس كوك "عن ورقته البحثية التي وضح فيها طريقة اتبعها لحفظ صحة طاقم سفينته ريزوليوشن أثناء رحلته الأخيرة حول العالم، والتي أفادت العامة كثيراً حين نقلت إلى الجمعية" [28]
1777 J.Mudge.jpg موج, جونجون موج "لبحثه القيم الذي احتوي توجيهات لصنع أفضل توليفة لمعادن التلسكوبات العاكسة. إلى جانب وصفه لعملية سن وتلميع لإعطاء أفضل منظار على شكل مكافئ حقيقي"
1778 Charles Hutton.jpg هوتن, تشارلزتشارلز هوتن "لبحثه المسمى القوة النارية للبارود، والسرعة الأولية لكرات المدفع حسب التجارب" [29]
1779 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1780 Samuel-Vince.jpg فينس, صمويلصمويل فينس "لورقته المسماة بحث مبادئ الحركة التصاعدية والدوارة" [30]
1781 William Herschel01.jpg هيرشل, ويليامويليام هيرشل لاكتشافه نجماً جديداً ومنفرداً، وهو الاكتشاف الذي نال بسببه شرفاً مميزاً؛ إذ أن هذا النجم موجود منذ سنوات عديدة، ربما منذ عصور، داخل حدود رؤية الفلكيين، ومع ذلك استعصى على الأبحاث الدؤوبة التي قام بها فلكيون آخرون. [31]
1782 Kirwan Richard portrait.jpg كيروان, ريتشاردريتشارد كيروان "مكافأة له على أعماله المتميزة في علم الكيمياء، ولتحليله الكيميائي للأملاح" [30]
1783 Goodricke John.jpg جودريك, جونجون جودريك و توماس هاتشنز "لإكتشافه فترة تغير تألق لنجم رأس الغول. (جودريك)"

"لبحوثه في اثبات نقطة تجمد الزئبق. (Hutchins)"

[30]
1784 Edwardwaring.jpg ويرينغ, إدواردإدوارد ويرينغ "لرسائله الرياضياتية إلى الجمعية. ولورقته حول تجميع المتسلسلات، وهو تعريف عام لنظام محدد لمسافة من أول مصطلح من المتسلسلة" [32]
1785 Fond blanc.svg روي, وليموليم روي "لقياساته في علم المساحة" [33]
1786 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1787 John Hunter by John Jackson.jpg هنتر, جونجون هنتر "لورقاته الثلاث، في المبايض، وتحديد أنواع الكلاب والذئاب وابناء آوى، وعن تشريحه للحيتان." [34]
1788 Blagden Charles.jpg بلاجدين, تشارلزتشارلز بلاجدين "لبحوثه في درجة التجمد" [35]
1789 Thomas Lawrence - Portrait of William Morgan (1750-1833).jpg مورجان, وليموليم مورجان "لورقتيه حول قيم التناقص والإبقاء" [36]
1790 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1791 James Rennel.png
Jean-André Deluc.jpg
رينل, جيمسجيمس رينل و

جان-اندريه ديلوك

"لبحثه في معدل السفر التي تنجزها الجمال. (رينل)"

"لتطويره أجهزة قياس الرطوبة. (ديلوك)"

[37]
1792 Benjamin Thompson.jpg طومسون, بنيامينبنيامين طومسون "عن أوراقه البحثية العديدة عن خواص الحرارة وانتقالها" [38]
1793 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1794 Volta A.jpg فولتا, ألساندروألساندرو فولتا "لتعليقاته العديدة التي شرح بها بعض التجارب التي أجراها البروفسور غلفاني" [39]
1795 Jesse.Ramsden.jpg رامزدين, جيسيجيسي رامزدين "لاختراعاته وتحسيناته في بناء أدوات لقياس المثلثات" [40]
1796 Fond blanc.svg أتوود, جورججورج أتوود "لورقته في بناء وتحليل مقترحات هندسية تحدد المراكز التي تتحملها الأجسام المتجانسة التي تعوم بحرية وعند توقفها. وتحدد أيضا توازن السفن وغيرها من الأجسام العائمة" [41]
1797 Fond blanc.svg حجبت
1798 Charles Hatchett 2.jpg Shuckburgh-Evelyn, GeorgeGeorge Shuckburgh-Evelyn and

Charles Hatchett

"For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Evelyn)"

"For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Hatchett)"

[42]
1799 Fond blanc.svg Hellins, JohnJohn Hellins "For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers" [43]

1800-1899[عدل]

السنة الصورة الاسم السبب ملحوظة
1800 Edward Howard (scientist) "For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury" [44]
1801 السير أستلي باستون كوبر "For his Papers - on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness" [45]
1802 وليام هايد ولاستون "For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [46]
1803 Richard Chenevix (chemist) "For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [47]
1804 سميثسون تينانت "For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [48]
1805 همفري ديفي "For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions" [49]
1806 Thomas Andrew Knight "For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [50]
1807 Everard Home "For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1808 وليام هنري (كيميائي) "For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1809 Edward Troughton "For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions" [51]
1810 No Award
1811 Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Baronet "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. On the influence of the Brain on the action of the Heart, and the generation of Animal Heat; and on the different modes in which death is brought on by certain Vegetable Poisons" [52]
1812 No Award
1813 وليام توماس بريند "For his Communications concerning the Alcohol contained in Fermented Liquors and other Papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1814 James Ivory (mathematician) "For his various Mathematical Contributions printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [53]
1815 ديفيد بروستر "For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies" [54]
1816 No Award
1817 Henry Kater "For his Experiments on the Pendulum" [55]
1818 Robert Seppings "For his Papers on the construction of Ships of War, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1819 No Award
1820 هانز أورستد "For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries" [56]
1821 Edward Sabine and جون هيرشل "For his various Communications to the Royal Society relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions. (Sabine) For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Herschel)" [57]
1822 وليام بكلاند "For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale" [58]
1823 John Pond "For his various Communications to the Royal Society"
1824 John Brinkley (astronomer) "For his various Communications to the Royal Society" [59]
1825 François Arago and Peter Barlow "For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree. (Arago) For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism. (Barlow)" [60]
1826 James South "For his observations of Double Stars, and his Paper on the Discordances between the Suns observed and computed Right Ascensions, published in the Transactions of the Society. For his Paper of Observations of the Apparent Distances and Positions of Four Hundred and Fifty-eight Double and Triple Stars, published in the present volume (1826, Part 1.) of the Transactions" [61]
1827 William Prout and Henry Foster "For his Paper, entitled, On the ultimate Composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organized bodies in general" [62]
1828 No Award
1829 No Award
1830 No Award
1831 George Biddell Airy "For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, - On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society" [63]
1832 مايكل فاراداي وسيميون بواسون "For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year. (فاراداي) For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire. (Poisson)" [64]
1833 No Award
1834 Giovanni Plana "For his work entitled, Theorie du Mouvement de la Lune" [65]
1835 William Snow Harris "For his experimental investigations of the force of electricity of high intensity contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1834" [49]
1836 Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Francis Kiernan "For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works. (Bezelius) For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833. (Kiernan)"
1837 Antoine César Becquerel and جون فردريك دانيال "For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires. (Becquerel) For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836. (Daniell)" [66]
1838 كارل فريدريش جاوس ومايكل فاراداي حصل غاوس على هاته الجائزة بفضل اختراعاته و أبحاثه الرياضياتية في المغناطيسية بينما حصل فاراداي عليها بفضل أبحاثه في الحث الكهربائي. [67]
1839 Robert Brown (botanist) "For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation" [68]
1840 Justus Liebig وجاك شارل فرانسوا ستورم "For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals. (Liebig) For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835. (Sturm)" [69][70]
1841 جورج أوم "For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet" [71]
1842 James MacCullagh "For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy" [72]
1843 جان-باتيست دوما "For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements"
1844 Carlo Matteucci "For his various researches in animal electricity" [73]
1845 Theodor Schwann "For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Bflanzen"
1846 أوربان لوفيريي "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation" [74]
1847 John Herschel "For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825" [57]
1848 John Couch Adams "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto" [75]
1849 Roderick Murchison "For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains"
1850 Peter Andreas Hansen "For his researches in physical astronomy" [49]
1851 Richard Owen "On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works" [76]
1852 ألكسندر فون هومبولت "For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years" [77]
1853 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove "For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth"
1854 Johannes Peter Müller "For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin" [78]
1855 ليون فوكو بفضل أبحاثه المختلفة في الفيزياء التجريبية [49]
1856 Henri Milne-Edwards "For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology"
1857 Michel Eugène Chevreul "For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, andf for his researches on the contrast of coulours" [49]
1858 Charles Lyell "For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology" [49]
1859 فلهيلم إدوارد فيبر "For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics" [79]
1860 Robert Bunsen "For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches" [49]
1861 Louis Agassiz "For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse" [49]
1862 Thomas Graham (chemist) "For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861" [80]
1863 Adam Sedgwick "For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire" [81]
1864 تشارلز داروين "For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology" [49]
1865 ميشال شال "For his historical and original researches in pure geometry" [82]
1866 Julius Plücker "For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis" [83]
1867 كارل إرنست فون باير "For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology" [49]
1868 Charles Wheatstone "For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism" [49]
1869 Henri Victor Regnault "For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaries au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours" [49]
1870 جيمس بريسكوت جول "For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat" [49]
1871 Julius Robert von Mayer "For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: - 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat" [49]
1872 Friedrich Woehler "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones" [49]
1873 Hermann Helmholtz "For his researches in physics and physiology" [84]
1874 لوي باستير "For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine" [49]
1875 August Wilhelm Hofmann "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia" [85]
1876 Claude Bernard "For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology" [49]
1877 James Dwight Dana "For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published" [49]
1878 Jean Baptiste Boussingault "For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry" [86]
1879 Rudolf Clausius "For his well-known researches upon heat" [87]
1880 James Joseph Sylvester "For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics" [88]
1881 Charles-Adolphe Wurtz "For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry"
1882 أرثور كايلي "For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics" [89]
1883 William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin "For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics" [90]
1884 Carl Ludwig "For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science"
1885 Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz "For his researches in organic chemistry" [49]
1886 Franz Ernst Neumann "For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics" [91]
1887 Joseph Dalton Hooker "For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller" [49]
1888 Thomas Henry Huxley "For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years" [49]
1889 George Salmon "For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author" [92]
1890 Simon Newcomb "For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy" [93]
1891 Stanislao Cannizzaro "For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory" [49]
1892 Rudolf Virchow "For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology" [49]
1893 جورج جابرييل ستوكس "For his researches and discoveries in physical science" [94]
1894 Edward Frankland "For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry" [95]
1895 كارل ويرستراس بفضل أبحاثه في الرياضيات الخالصة [96]
1896 Karl Gegenbaur "For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc"
1897 Albert von Kolliker "In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist"
1898 William Huggins "For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies" [49]
1899 John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh "In recognition of his contributions to physical science" [97]
1900 Marcellin Berthelot "For his brilliant services to chemical science" [49]
1901 Willard Gibbs "For his contributions to mathematical physics" [98]
1902 Joseph Lister "In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery" [99]
1903 Eduard Suess "For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work 'Das Antlitz der Erde'" [99]
1904 William Crookes "For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects" [99]
1905 ديميتري مندلييف "For his contributions to chemical and physical science" [99]
1906 Elias Metchnikoff "On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology" [99]
1907 ألبرت ميكلسون بفضل أبحاثه في البصريات [99]
1908 Alfred Russel Wallace "On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection" [99]
1909 George William Hill "On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy" [99]
1910 فرانسيس جالتون "بفضل أبحاثه في الوراثة" [99]
1911 George Howard Darwin "On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects" [99]
1912 فيليكس كلاين بفضل أبحاثه في الرياضيات [100]
1913 Ray Lankester "On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him" [101]
1914 J. J. Thomson "On the ground of his discoveries in physical science" [99]
1915 إيفان بافلوف "On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system" [99]
1916 James Dewar "For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases" <[99]
1917 Emile Roux "On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy" [102]
1918 Hendrik Lorentz "On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics" [99]
1919 William Bayliss "On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics" [99]
1920 Horace Tabberer Brown "On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c" [103]
1921 Joseph Larmor "For his researches in mathematical physics" [104]
1922 Ernest Rutherford "For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure" [99]
1923 Horace Lamb "For his researches in mathematical physics" [105]
1924 Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer "For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences"
1925 Albert Einstein "For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory" [99]
1926 Frederick Hopkins "For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry" [106]
1927 Charles Sherrington "For his distinguished work on neurology" [107]
1928 Charles Algernon Parsons "For his contributions to engineering science"
1929 Max Planck "For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory" [108]
1930 William Henry Bragg "For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity" [109]
1931 Arthur Schuster "For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism" [110]
1932 George Ellery Hale "For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory" [111]
1933 Theobald Smith "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man" [112]
1934 John Scott Haldane "In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering" [113]
1935 Charles Thomson Rees Wilson "For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties" [114]
1936 Arthur Evans "In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age" [115]
1937 Henry Dale "In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems" [116]
1938 Niels Bohr "In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure" [117]
1939 Thomas Hunt Morgan "For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution" [118]
1940 Paul Langevin "For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics" [119]
1941 Thomas Lewis (cardiologist) "For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart" [120]
1942 Robert Robinson (scientist) "For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry" [121]
1943 Joseph Barcroft "For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood" [122]
1944 Geoffrey Ingram Taylor "For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications" [123]
1945 Oswald Theodore Avery "For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases" [124]
1946 Edgar Douglas Adrian "For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions" [125]
1947 غودفري هارولد هاردي "For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years" [126]
1948 Archibald Vivian Hill "For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues" [127]
1949 George Charles De Hevesy "For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes" [128]
1950 James Chadwick "For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron" [129]
1951 David Keilin "For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes" [130]
1952 Paul Dirac "In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics" [131]
1953 Albert Kluyver "For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology"
1954 Edmund Whittaker "For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics" [132]
1955 Ronald Fisher "In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology" [133]
1956 Patrick Blackett "In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism"
1957 Howard Florey "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine" [134]
1958 جون إيدنسور ليتلوود "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations" [135]
1959 Frank Macfarlane Burnet "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology" [136]
1960 Harold Jeffreys "In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy" [137]
1961 Hans Adolf Krebs "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles" [138] s
1962 Cyril Norman Hinshelwood "In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy" [139]
1963 Paul Fildes "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology."
1964 Sydney Chapman (astronomer), Sydney ChapmanSydney Chapman Sydney Chapman (astronomer) "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis" [140]
1965 Alan Hodgkin "In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology"
1966 William Lawrence Bragg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction" [99]
1967 Bernard Katz "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction"
1968 Tadeus Reichstein "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids"
1969 Peter Medawar "In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance" [99]
1970 Alexander Todd "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types" [99]
1971 Norman Pirie "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses"
1972 Nevill Mott "In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics" [99]
1973 Andrew Huxley "In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction"
1974 W. V. D. Hodge "In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals" [141]
1975 Francis Crick "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology" [99]
1976 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin "In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin" [99]
1977 Frederick Sanger "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids" [99]
1978 Robert Burns Woodward "In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry" [99]
1979 Max Perutz "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject" [99]
1980 Derek Harold Richard Barton "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and، in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry" [99]
1981 Peter D. Mitchell [99]
1982 John Cornforth "In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemically-controlled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules" [142]
1983 Rodney Porter "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins"
1984 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar "In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity" [143]
1985 Aaron Klug "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them"
1986 Rudolph Peierls "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials"
1987 Robert Hill (British biophysicist) "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis"
1988 مايكل عطية اعترافا بمساهماته في مجالات عدة في الهندسة الرياضية والطوبولوجيا والتحليل والفيزياء النظرية. [144]
1989 Cesar Milstein "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response"
1990 Abdus Salam "In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces" [145]
1991 Sydney Brenner "In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project"
1992 George Porter "In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology" [146]
1993 James D. Watson "In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome" [147]
1994 Charles Frank (physicist) "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems"
1995 Frank Fenner "In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease"
1996 Alan Cottrell "In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects" [148]
1997 Hugh Huxley "In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology"
1998 James Lighthill "In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his ground-breaking work on both external bio-fluid-dynamics - analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying - and internal bio-fluid-dynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing" [149]
1999 John Maynard Smith "تقديرا لمساهماته الابداعية في علم الأحياء التطوري، بما فيها عمله التجريبي على الاصطفاء الجنسي، اسهاماته الهامة في فهمنا للشيخوخة، تقديمه لوسائط نظرية للألعاب لتحليل السيناريوهات التطورية المعقدة، وبحثه في التطور الجزيئي، من خلال عمله الكلاسيكي على الترافق الجيني، وعمله الأحدث والمتواصل على نمو التجمعات البكتيرية" [150]
2000 Alan Battersby "In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B12"
2001 Jacques Miller "For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells"
2002 John Pople "For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology" [151]
2003 John Gurdon "For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology"
2004 Harold Kroto "in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science" [152]
2005 بول نرس "for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division"
2006 ستيفن هوكينج لإسهاماته القيمة في مجالي الفيزياء النظرية وعلم الكونيات النظري [28]
2007 روبرت ماي "لدراساته الأصيلة عن التفاعلات بين وفي بيولوجية السكان والتي أعادت تشكيل فهمنا لكيفية استجابة الأنواع والمجتمعات والنظم البيئية بأكملها للكوارث الطبيعية أو الاضطرابات التي سببها البشر."
2008 روجر بنروز "لرؤاه الجميلة والأصيلة في مجال الرياضيات والفيزياء الرياضية. وللسير روجر مساهمات رائعة عن النظرية النسبية العامة وعلم الكونيات ، وأبرز ذلك عمله على الثقوب السوداء والانفجار الكوني الكبير"
2009 مارتن إيفانز "عن عمله الأساسي حول الخلايا الجذعية الجنينية في الفئران، والذي أحدث ثورة في مجال علم الوراثة."
2010 ديفيد كوكس "لمساهماته الأساسية في نظريات وتطبيقات الإحصاء." [153]
توماس لندال "لمساهماته الأساسية لفهم تعديل الكيمياء الحيوية للدي ان إي." [153]
2011 دان مكنزي "لمساهماته الأساسية في فهم الظواهر الجيولوجية والجيوفيزيائية للصفائح التكتونية."

المصادر[عدل]

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  2. ^ أ ب ت "Oxford DNB article:Desaguliers, John Theophilus (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  3. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Belchier, John (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  4. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Hales, Stephen (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  5. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Stuart, Alexander (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  6. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Middleton, Christopher (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  7. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Baker, Henry (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  8. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Watson, Sir William (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  9. ^ "Robins biography". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  10. ^ أ ب Jungnickel، Christa (1996). "Gowin+Knight"+copley+medal&source=web&ots=qkgEYLbmyD&sig=7QmOJ-VITbyQ7qtheKyj-dFsF0Y&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result "Cavendish". DIANE publishing. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  11. ^ "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You - Timeline - James Bradley". Florida State University. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  12. ^ Jungnickel، Christa (1996). "+John+Harrison"+copley+medal&source=web&ots=qkgEYLbstx&sig=ohEXM_GtonJgNU5x08Clq5-gViA&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result "Cavendish". DIANE publishing. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
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  15. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Pringle, Sir John (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
  16. ^ "Franklin_Benjamin biography". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
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  19. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Dollond family (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
  20. ^ "Engineering Timelines - John Smeaton". Engineering Timelines. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
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  33. ^ "William Roy". Electric Scotland. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-29. 
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  39. ^ اكتب عنوان المرجع بين علامتي الفتح <ref> والإغلاق </ref> للمرجع RoyalSocCitations
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  50. ^ Darrow، GM. "Early Breeding in Europe". United States National Agricultural Library. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
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  52. ^ Buchanan، W.W. "Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie (1783–1862)". British Society for Rheumatology. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  53. ^ "Ivory summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-30. 
  54. ^ "Sir David Brewster (1781-1868)". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  55. ^ "Henry Kater (1777-1835), Scientist". National Portrait Gallery. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  56. ^ "SpringerLink - Book Chapter". سبرنجر. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-08. 
  57. ^ أ ب "Herschel summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-30. 
  58. ^ "William Buckland & Reliquae Diluvianae". جامعة مينيسوتا. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-08. 
  59. ^ "The British Society for the History of Mathematics". The British Society for the History of Mathematics. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  60. ^ "Arago summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-30. 
  61. ^ "Lake County Astronomical Society". Lake County Astronomical Society. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  64. ^ "Poisson summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-01-30. 
  65. ^ "Plana biography". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  66. ^ "Chambers Search Chambers". Chambers Harrap. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  67. ^ "Gauss summary". جامعة سانت أندروز. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-08. 
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  70. ^ "Sturm summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
  71. ^ "Ohm biography". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
  72. ^ "MacCullagh summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  73. ^ "Carlo+Matteucci"+copley+medal&source=web&ots=ki52cvt2hL&sig=ekDGFHDWXXU95w4uDH1UWR3xP0w&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result Amedeo Avogadro, a Scientific Biography. سبرنجر. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  74. ^ "Le Verrier biography". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  75. ^ "Adams summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
  76. ^ "Own, Richard: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences". Wiley InterScience. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  77. ^ "Humboldt - Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander - von - 1769-1859 - Baron - German naturalist, geologist and explorer". جامعة إدنبرة. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  78. ^ "BjS: Academic Lineage". جامعة ييل. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  79. ^ "Weber summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
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  81. ^ "Adam Sedgwick Collection". American Philosophical Society. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  83. ^ "Plucker summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
  84. ^ "Helmholtz summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
  85. ^ "August+Wilhelm+Hofmann"+copley+medal&source=web&ots=9DZlVcbutv&sig=mS6twqbqJEb88x9cip6DWf5H5iY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPA14,M1 "Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science". Journal of Industrial Science. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  86. ^ "Jean Baptiste Boussingault" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  88. ^ "Sylvester summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
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  93. ^ "Newcomb summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
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  95. ^ "Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, c 1863-1883.". متحف العلوم (لندن). اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  97. ^ "Rayleigh summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-03. 
  98. ^ "Gibbs summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  101. ^ "Obituary: Edwin Ray Lankester" (PDF). National Marine Biological Laboratory. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  102. ^ "Notes and Records of the Royal Society". Royal Society Publishing. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  104. ^ "Larmour summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  107. ^ "Sir Charles Sherrington - Biography". Nobel Foundation. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  108. ^ "Planck summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
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  110. ^ "Sir Arthur Schuster". The Astrophysical Journal. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
  111. ^ "George Ellery Hale: Acknowledgements". معهد فرنكلن. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
  112. ^ "Award of the Copley Medal of the Royal Society to Professor Theobald Smith". Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  123. ^ "Taylor_Geoffrey summay". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  128. ^ "Royal Society: Anniversary Address By Sir Robert Robinson, O.M., F.R.S". Nature. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
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  132. ^ "Whittaker summary". University of St Andrews. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-05. 
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  142. ^ "Emeritus Professor Sir John Cornforth - Alumni & Friends". جامعة سيدني. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
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  147. ^ "Press Release - James Watson to receive Othmer Medal". Chemical Heritage Foundation. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
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  150. ^ "John Maynard Smith January 6, 1920–April 19, 2004". Genetics. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2009-02-15. 
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قالب:حاصلي على وسام كوبلي 2001-2050