مساعدة:أصد للعربية

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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يوضح الرسم البياني أدناه كيفية تمثل ويكيبيديا نطق اللغة العربية في الألفبائية الصوتية الدولية (أصد). ماان علىماما وجه الدقة ، النطق المُعطي هو لاللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة. يختلف النطق الفعلي، بالاعتماد على اللهجات العربية التي يتكلمها الناطق. للحصول على نظرة ماما أكثر شمولاً على أصوات اللغة العربية، انظر أصوات العربية.

The symbols are arranged by similarity to letters of the Latin alphabet. Symbols resembling any Latin letter are placed at the end.

جدول[عدل]

رمز تقريب للإنجليزية حرف/رمز عربي الكتابة بالحروف اللاتينية المعتاد ملاحظات
A–B
a father، لكن أقصر َ a، e [a]
father ا  ,ى ā, aa a [b]
aj /a/+/j/, similar to Thai ـَي ay, ai, e, ey, ei [c]
aw /a/+/w/, similar to cow ـَو aw, au, o [d]
b bee ب b [e]
D
d deal د d [f]
emphatic /d/,
somewhat close to dark
ض [g][f]
jam ج j, ǧ, dj, g [h]
ð these ذ dh, ḏ [i]
ðˤ emphatic /ð/ ظ [g][j]
F–H
f father ف f [k]
h he ه h
ħ No equivalent ح [l]
I–K
ɪ sit[1][2][3] ِ i, e [m]
machine ي ī, ee, i [n]
j yes ي y
k skin ك k [o]
L–N
l lease (Received Pronunciation) ل l
ɫ tool l [p]
m me م m
n no ن n
O–R
q somewhat close to c in scar ق q, g, ' [q]
r somewhat close to ray ر r [r]
S
s see س s
emphatic /s/,
somewhat close to massage
ص [g]
ʃ she ش sh, š, ch
T–W
t stik ت
(sometimes ة: طالع نحو عربي)
t [f][o]
emphatic /t/,
somewhat close to star
ط [g][f]
θ think ث th, ṯ [i]
u put ُ u, o, ou [s]
rule و ū, oo, ou, u [t]
w we و w
X–Z
x Scottish loch,
Spanish jota
خ kh, ḫ [u]
ɣ Spanish fuego,
French parler
غ gh, ġ [v]
z zoo ز z
Other
ʔ The pause in uh-oh!;
Cockney butter
ء ʾ الفاصلة العليا [w]
ʕ no equivalent ع ʿ الفاصلة العليا ` [x][y]
θ see under T—W
ˈ [ˈkiːwi] كيوي 'kiwi' Means that the following syllable is stressed: /ˈʕarabiː/.
ː [kiːs] كيس 'sack' Means that the preceding vowel is long
[ˈdˤɑħ.ħæː] ضَحّى [he] 'sacrificed'
[mʊdærˈrɪsæ] مُدَرِّسَة [female] 'teacher'
A geminated consonant never belongs to one syllable and is often broken with a stress.

ملاحظات[عدل]

  1. ^ Allophones of /a/ include [ɑ] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æ] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 52–53; Kaye 1997، صفحة 193, 197).
  2. ^ Allophones of /aː/ include [ɑː] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æː] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 52–53; Kaye 1997، صفحة 193, 197).
  3. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, /aj/ may be realized as []~[ɛː]~[ej] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595; Kaye 1997، صفحة 198).
  4. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, /aw/ may be realized as []~[ɔː]~[ow] may occur (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595; Kaye 1997، صفحة 198).
  5. ^ The letter ب may represent [p] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written پ) and before voiceless consonants (Kaye 1997, p. 193).
  6. أ ب ت ث /d dˤ t tˤ/ are realized as either أسناني, denti-alveolar or لثوي (Al-Ani 2008, p. 597).
  7. أ ب ت ث Emphatic consonants may be مبلعمة or velarized (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 599; Kaye 1997، صفحة 193).
  8. ^ The letter ج is pronounced as [ɡ] in Egypt and as [ʒ] in the Levant and the Maghreb (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 598; Gairdner 1925، صفحة 23).
  9. أ ب In nonstandard pronunciations, /θ/ and /ð/ may be pronounced as [s] and [z] (Gairdner 1925, p. 19, 81).
  10. ^ The letter ظ is pronounced as [ðˤ] or [] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 601).
  11. ^ The letter ف may represent [v] in foreign loanwords (sometimes written ڤ or ڤ) and may be pronounced as well as before voiced consonants (Kaye 1997, p. 193).
  12. ^ /ħ/ is pronounced as [ħ] or [ʜ].
  13. ^ Allophones of /ɪ/ include [i]~[e] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 52–53; Kaye 1997، صفحة 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /ɪ/ completely becomes /e/ in some other particular dialects.
  14. ^ Allophones of /iː/ include [ɪː]~[ɨː] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 52–53; Kaye 1997، صفحة 193, 197).
  15. أ ب /k/ and /t/ are usually زفر (صوتيات) (Al-Ani 2008, p. 597–598).
  16. ^ [ɫ] occurs only in the word Allah: [ɑɫˈɫɑh] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 600; Kaye 1997، صفحة 196).
  17. ^ /q/ may be pronounced as [ʔ] in Egypt and the Levant and as [ɡ] or [ɢ] in other dialects (Gairdner 1925, p. 26–27).
  18. ^ /r/ is a trill [r] or a flap [ɾ]; it may be velarized or مبلعمة as well (Al-Ani 2008, p. 600).
  19. ^ Allophones of /u/ include [ʊ]~[ɤ]~[o] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 52–53; Kaye 1997، صفحة 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /u/ completely becomes /o/ in some other particular dialects.
  20. ^ Allophones of /uː/ include [ʊː]~[ɤː]~[] before emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 52–53; Kaye 1997، صفحة 193, 197).
  21. ^ /x/ is pronounced as [x] or [χ].
  22. ^ /ɣ/ is pronounced as [ɣ] or [ʁ] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 599; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 598; Gairdner 1925، صفحة 26).
  23. ^ /ʔ/ is usually written above or below أ, إ, آ, ئ or ؤ.
  24. ^ /ʕ/ is pronounced as [ʕ] or [ʔˤ] (Al-Ani 2008، صفحة 599; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999، صفحة 51).
  25. ^ /ʢ/ is neither pharyngeal nor fricative, but it is more correctly described as a creaky-voiced حلقي (صوتيات) شبه صامت (Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)).

مراجع[عدل]

  • Al-Ani, Salman H. (2008). "Phonetics". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. III. Brill. صفحات 593–603. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Gairdner, W. H. T. (1925). The Phonetics of Arabic. Oxford University Press. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Kaye, Alan S. (1997). "Arabic phonology". Phonologies of Asia and Africa. I. صفحات 187–204. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Mitchell, T. F. (1990). Pronouncing Arabic. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'adeddin, M. Akram (1999). "Arabic". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. صفحات 51–54. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  1. ^ https://www.madinaharabic.com/Arabic_Reading_Course/Lessons/L000_002.html
  2. ^ http://www.schoolarabia.net/learn_arabic/learn_arabic_guidelines.htm
  3. ^ http://arabic.tripod.com/Arab20.htm