مستخدم:محمد 19951/ملعب1

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
اذهب إلى التنقل اذهب إلى البحث

[1]

[2]

[3][4]

Definition[عدل]

[5][6][7]

Early terrorism[عدل]

Artistic rendering of Hassan-i Sabbah

[19][20][21]

[19][22][23][24][25][24]

[26][27][28][29][19][24][30]

[31]

Reign of Terror (1793–1794)[عدل]

[32][33][34]

[2][35][36]

Emergence of modern terrorism[عدل]

[37][38][39][40]

[38][41][42]

Ireland[عدل]

[43][44][45]

[46]

[47][48]

[49]

Anarchism and "propaganda of the deed"[عدل]

Ignacy Hryniewiecki, a terrorist who assassinated Tsar Alexander II of Russia

[50][51][52][53]

[19][54][55][38][19][54][56]

[57]

The United States[عدل]

[58][59][60][61][62]

A cartoon threatening that the KKK will lynch carpetbaggers, in the Independent Monitor, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1868

[63][64][65]

[64]

The Ottoman Empire[عدل]

[66][67][68]

[69][70][71][72][73][74]

Early 20th century[عدل]

The assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, precipitated a global war"

[75][76][77]

[78]

[79]

Irish independence[عدل]

[80][81]

Rubble in the streets of Dublin after the failed Easter Rising in 1916 against British rule

[82][83]

[84][85][86][87]

«The Irish [thanks to the example set by Collins and followed by the SOE] can thus claim that their resistance provide the originating impulse for resistance to tyrannies worse than any they had to endure themselves. And the Irish resistance as Collins led it, showed the rest of the world an economical way to fight wars the only sane way they can be fought in the age of the Nuclear bomb.[88]» – M. R. D. Foot, who wrote several official histories of SOE

Mandatory Palestine[عدل]

[89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98]

The King David Hotel, Mandatory Palestine, after the 1946 bombing.

[99][100][99]

[92][94][101][102]

Resistance during WWII[عدل]

[103][104][86][87]

[105][106][107][108]

[107]

«We must recognise that our response to the scourge of terrorism is compromised by what we did through SOE. The justification ... That we had no other means of striking back at the enemy ... is exactly the argument used by the Red Brigades, the Baader-Meinhoff gang, the PFLP, the IRA and every other half-articulate terrorist organisation on Earth. Futile to argue that we were a democracy and Hitler a tyrant. Means besmirch ends. SOE besmirched Britain.[109]»

Anti-colonial struggles (Cold War)[عدل]

[77][110]

Aftermath of the 1964 Brinks Hotel bombing in Vietnam.

[111]

[111][112].

[113][114][115][116][117][118]

Middle East[عدل]

[119][120][121][122]

[123][124][110][125][126]

Plaque commemorating the eleven Israeli athletes killed during the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre.

[127][128][129][129][130][131][132][129][133]

[134][135]

[136][137]

[138]

[139]

Europe[عدل]

[140][141][142][143][144]

[145][146][147][148][149][150][151]

Ulrike Meinhof

[152][153][154]

[155]

The Americas[عدل]

[156][157][158][159]

[160][161][162]

[163][164][163][165][166][167]

[168][169]

[170]

Asia[عدل]

[171]

[172][173][174][175][176]

Africa[عدل]

[177][178][179][180][181]

[182][183]

Late 20th century[عدل]

 [بحاجة لمصدر][184]

The Americas[عدل]

[185][186][187]

[188][189][190]

Middle East[عدل]

Explosion at U.S. Marine Corps peacekeeping barracks in Beirut, Lebanon, 1983

[191][192][193][194][195] [بحاجة لمصدر][196]

[197]

[198]

[199][200][201][202][203][204][205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213][214][215][216][217][218][219][220][221][222][223][224][225]

[226][226][227][227][228][229][230][231][232]

Asia[عدل]

.[233][233][234]

[235]

Europe[عدل]

Hostage crisis victim photos, on the walls of the former School Number One

[236][237]

21st century[عدل]

Europe[عدل]

[238][239][239][240][241]

[242][المرجو التوضيح].

[243][244]

[245]

[246]

[247]

The Je suis Charlie ("I am Charlie") slogan became an endorsement of freedom of speech and press

[248][249][250][251][252][253][254][255][256][257]

[250][258][259][260][261][262][263][264]

[265][266][267][268]

[269]

[270]

[271]

Middle East[عدل]

Osama bin Laden

[272][273][274][275]

September 11, 2001قالب:NsmdnsThe towers of the World Trade Center burn

.[276][277][276]

[278][279][280][280][281][282][283][284][285][286][287]

[288]

Asia[عدل]

[289][290]

  1. [291]

[292][293][294][295][296][297]

[298][299]

Americas[عدل]

[300]


Notes[عدل]

  1. أ ب Paul Reynolds؛ quoting David Hannay؛ Former UK ambassador (14 September 2005). "UN staggers on road to reform". BBC News. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 11 يناير 2010. This would end the argument that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter... 
  2. أ ب https://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/28/opinion/28furstenberg.html?em&ex=1193803200&en=62eaa390a911d2d4&ei=5087%0A
  3. ^ Nazi Terror Begins، United States Holocaust Museum، 20 June 2014 
  4. ^ State terror in the Stalin era, The Foundations of Modern Terrorism، 2013 
  5. ^ Jeffrey Record. Bounding the Global War on Terrorism, December 1, 2003, (ردمك 1-58487-146-6). p. 6 (page 12 of the PDF document) citing in footnote 11: Walter Laqueur, The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 6.
  6. ^ Angus Martyn, The Right of Self-Defence under International Law-the Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September نسخة محفوظة April 29, 2009, على موقع واي باك مشين. http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/Publications_Archive/CIB/cib0102/02CIB08, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, February 12, 2002
  7. ^ Hoffman (1998), p. 32. See review in The New York Times Inside Terrorism
  8. ^ "Terrorism - Define Terrorism at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  9. ^ Gustave LeBon, The Psychology of the Great War, 1916, p. 391. Google Books: [1]
  10. أ ب "Criminology". google.com. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  11. ^ "JUST Response - Ayatollah Taskhiri - Definition of terrorism". justresponse.net. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  12. ^ "Definitions of Terrorism". United Nations. مؤرشف من الأصل في 29 يناير 2007. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 10 يوليو 2007. 
  13. ^ U.S. Code Title 22, Ch.38, Para. 2656f(d)
  14. ^ Art. 1 of the Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism (2002)
  15. ^ Schmid's definition of terrorism was adopted in a 2003 ruling (Madan Singh vs. State of Bihar); See http://www.sacw.net/hrights/judgementjehanabad.doc
  16. ^ Bockstette, Carsten (2008). "Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques" (PDF). George C. Marshall Center Occasional Paper Series (20). ISSN 1863-6039. مؤرشف من الأصل (PDF) في 01 فبراير 2009. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 01 يناير 2009. 
  17. ^ Stork، Joe (February 6, 2014). "Saudi Arabia: Terrorism Law Tramples on Rights". Human Rights Watch. اطلع عليه بتاريخ February 25, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Saudi Arabia: New terrorism law is latest tool to crush peaceful expression". Amnesty International. February 3, 2014. اطلع عليه بتاريخ May 4, 2010. 
  19. أ ب ت ث ج History of Terrorism article by Mark Burgess نسخة محفوظة 2012-05-11 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  20. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 17
  21. ^ [2] http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090609003228/http://www.berr.gov.uk/fireworks/download/FW1434_Keystage2_07.pdf
  22. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 83
  23. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.56
  24. أ ب ت Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.68
  25. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 167
  26. ^ Rapoport, David. "Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions." American Political Science Review, 1984. p.658
  27. ^ Willey, Peter. The Castles of the Assassins. New York: Linden Press, 2001. p.19
  28. ^ Daftary, Farhad. The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Isma'ilis. London: I. B. Tauris, 1995. p.42
  29. ^ Hodgson, Marshall G. S. The Secret Order of Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizari Ismai'lis Against the Islamic World. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005. p.83
  30. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 84
  31. ^ https://www.varsitytutors.com/earlyamerica/early-america-review/volume-1/sons-liberty-patriots-terrorists
  32. ^ "BBC - History - The Changing Faces of Terrorism". bbc.co.uk. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  33. ^ Harvey, Donald Joseph French Revolution, History.com, 2006 (Accessed April 27, 2007) نسخة محفوظة October 14, 2007, على موقع واي باك مشين. http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution
  34. ^ Merriman, John(2004). "Thermidor"(2nd ed.). A history of modern Europe: from the Renaissance to the present,p 507. W.W. Norton & Company Ltd. (ردمك 0-393-92495-5)
  35. ^ Hoffman, p.1
  36. ^ Chialand, p.6
  37. ^ Furstenberg، François (October 28, 2007). "Bush's Dangerous Liaisons". The New York Times. اطلع عليه بتاريخ May 4, 2010. 
  38. أ ب ت "BBC - History - The Changing Faces of Terrorism". bbc.co.uk. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  39. ^ The Dynamite Club by John Merriman
  40. ^ "Early History of Terrorism". terrorism-research.com. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  41. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.124
  42. ^ "A History of Terrorism'’, by Walter Laqueur, Transaction Publishers, 2000, (ردمك 0-7658-0799-8), p. 92 [3]
  43. ^ "Terrorism: From the Fenians to Al Qaeda". اطلع عليه بتاريخ 09 يناير 2014. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/terrorism/
  44. ^ Irish Freedom, by Richard English Publisher: Pan Books (2 November 2007), (ردمك 0-330-42759-8) p179
  45. ^ Irish Freedom, by Richard English Publisher: Pan Books (2 November 2007), (ردمك 0-330-42759-8) p. 180
  46. ^ Irish Freedom, by Richard English Publisher: Pan Books (2 November 2007), (ردمك 0-330-42759-8) p3
  47. ^ Whelehan، Niall (2012). The Dynamiters: Irish Nationalism and Political Violence in the Wider World 1867-1900. Cambridge. 
  48. ^ "The Fenian Dynamite campaign 1881-85". اطلع عليه بتاريخ 09 يناير 2014. 
  49. ^ Secret War Exhibition, Imperial War Museum London
  50. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.116
  51. ^ Mikhail Bakunin. "Works of Mikhail Bakunin 1870". marxists.org. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  52. ^ Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas
  53. ^ "Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume One - , - Black Rose Books". blackrosebooks.net. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  54. أ ب Hoffman 1998, p. 5
  55. ^ A History of Terrorism'’, by Walter Laqueur, Transaction Publishers, 2000, (ردمك 0-7658-0799-8), p. 92 [4]
  56. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.133
  57. ^ "The Guillotine's Sure Work; Details of the Execution of Vaillant, the Anarchist", The New York Times, 1984-02-06.
  58. ^ Blight، David W. "The Good Terrorist". The Washington Post. اطلع عليه بتاريخ May 4, 2010. 
  59. ^ Otto Scott, The Secret Six: John Brown and the Abolitionist Movement (Murphys, Calif.: Uncommon Books, 1979, 1983), 3.
  60. ^ Tomasky، Michael (December 2, 2009). "Let's debate John Brown: terrorist, or no?". The Guardian (UK). اطلع عليه بتاريخ February 25, 2014. 
  61. ^ Reynolds، David S. (December 1, 2009). "Freedom's Martyr". New York Times. اطلع عليه بتاريخ February 25, 2014. 
  62. ^ Horwitz، Tony (December 1, 2009). "The 9/11 of 1859". New York Times. اطلع عليه بتاريخ February 25, 2014. 
  63. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 9.
  64. أ ب Jackson 1992 ed., pp. 241-242.
  65. ^ "Terrorism 2000/2001" (PDF). مؤرشف من الأصل (PDF) في 20 مارس 2009. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 08 مارس 2009. 
  66. ^ Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: Harper Perennial, 2004. p.104
  67. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.193
  68. ^ Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006. Page 51.
  69. ^ Ross, Jeffrey Ian. Political Terrorism: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Peter Lang Press, 2006. p.34
  70. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 11
  71. ^ Kaplan, Robert. Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History. New York: Picador, 2005. p.56
  72. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.189
  73. ^ Danforth, Loring. The Macedonian Conflict. Princeton University Press, 1997. p.87
  74. ^ Kaplan, Robert. Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History. New York: Picador, 2005. p.57
  75. ^ Bell, J. Bowyer. Terror Out of Zion: Irgun Zvai Leumi, Lehi and the Palestine Underground, 1929-1949. Avon, 1985. p.14
  76. ^ "Jewish-Zionist Terror.". 150m.com. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  77. أ ب Lia, Brynjar. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928-1942. Ithaca Press, 2006. p.53
  78. ^ Rowland، Peter (1978). David Lloyd George:a biography. Macmillan. صفحة 228. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  79. ^ "Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Was Worse?". New York Review of Books. 27 January 2011. 
  80. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.185
  81. ^ "BBC - History - 1916 Easter Rising - Aftermath - The Executions". bbc.co.uk. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  82. ^ Chaliand, p.185: "Just before Easter 1920, the IRA simultaneously attacked more than 300 police stations..."
  83. ^ Hart, Peter. Mick: The Real Michael Collins. p.241
  84. ^ Coogan, Tim. Michael Collins: The Man Who Made Ireland. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. p.92
  85. ^ Colin Shindler, The Land Beyond Promise:Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream, I.B.Tauris, 2001 p.177
  86. أ ب Hugh Dalton letter to Lord Halifax 2/7/1940
  87. أ ب [5] article by Matthew Carr Author The Infernal Machine: A History of Terrorism نسخة محفوظة December 2, 2008, على موقع واي باك مشين.
  88. ^ Geraghty (1998), p.347
  89. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. P. 212-213.
  90. ^ Zadka, Saul. Blood in Zion: How the Jewish Guerrillas Drove the British Out of Palestine. London: Brassey Press, 2003. P. 42.
  91. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley, University of California Press, 2001. P. 64.
  92. أ ب Hoffman 1998, P. 26.
  93. ^ Ehud Sprinzak, Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination, Simon and Schuster, 1999 p.35.
  94. أ ب Sachar, Howard. A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. New York: Knopf, 2007. P. 247.
  95. ^ "This Week in History: The King David Hotel bombing". The Jerusalem Post - JPost.com. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  96. ^ Clarke, Thurston. By Blood and Fire, G. P. Puttnam's Sons, New York, 1981
  97. ^ "History of the Movement". likud.org.il. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  98. ^ Howard Sachar: ''A History of the State of Israel, pps[المرجو التوضيح] 265-266
  99. أ ب Segev، Tom (1999). One Palestine, Complete. Metropolitan Books. صفحات 360–362. ISBN 0-8050-4848-0. 
  100. ^ Shai Lachman, "Arab Rebellion and Terrorism in Palestine 1929-39: The Case of Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam and His Movement", in Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel, edited by Elie Kedourie and Sylvia G. Haim, Frank Cass, London, 1982, p. 55.
  101. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. P. 213.
  102. ^ Pedahzur, Ami. The Israeli Response to Jewish terrorism and violence. Defending Democracy. New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. P. 77.
  103. ^ Resistance - An Analysis of European Resistance to Nazism 1940-1945, by M. R. D. Foot
  104. ^ John Keegan as quoted in The Irish War, by Tony Geraghty
  105. ^ "Programmes - Most Popular - All 4". Channel 4. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  106. ^ SOE in France. An Account of the Work of the British Special Operations Executive in France 1940-1944. By M. R. D. Foot (1966).
  107. أ ب Churchill's Secret Army, Carlton UK, Channel 4, 2000
  108. ^ [6] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news
  109. ^ Geraghty (1998), p.346
  110. أ ب Hoffman 1998, p. 33
  111. أ ب Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. p.227
  112. ^ Amy Zalman. "Where Did Left Wing Terrorism Go?". About.com News & Issues. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  113. ^ Vietnam: A History, Stanley Karnow,1983
  114. ^ How the Soviet Union Transformed Terrorism/250433/
  115. ^ "Fidel Castro". Encyclopædia Britannica. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  116. ^ "Tower Commission Report Excerpts". ucsb.edu. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  117. ^ The Power of Nightmares, BBC, 2004
  118. ^ Crile، George (2004). Charlie Wilson's War. Atlantic Monthly Press. صفحات 111–112. ISBN 0-8021-4124-2. 
  119. ^ Lia, Brynjar. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928 – 1942. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 2006. P. 35.
  120. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley, US: University of California Press, 2007. P. 274.
  121. ^ Mitchell, Richard. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. Oxford University Press, 1993. P. 74.
  122. ^ "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood." Robert S. Leiken & Steven Brooke, Foreign Affairs Magazine.
  123. ^ Stora, Benjamin. Algeria, 1830-2000: A Short History. Cornell University Press, 2004. P. 36.
  124. ^ Galula, David. Pacification in Algeria, 1956-1958. RAND Corporation Press, 2006. P. 14.
  125. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. P. 216.
  126. ^ Millar, S.N. 'Arab Victory: Lessons from the Algerian War (1954–62)', British Army Review No 145 Autumn 2008, p. 49
  127. ^ Rubin, Barry. Revolution Until Victory?: The Politics and History of the PLO. Harvard University Press, 1996. P. 7. [7].
  128. ^ Hoffman 1998, P. 47.
  129. أ ب ت Pike, J. Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Intelligence Resource Program. Federation of American Scientists, 1998-08-08.
  130. ^ Reeve, Simon. One Day in September: The Full Story of the 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and the Israeli Revenge Operation. Arcade Publishing, 2006. P. 32.
  131. ^ Hoffman, p. 46.
  132. ^ Cobban, Helena.The Palestinian Liberation Organisation: People, Power and Politics. Cambridge University Press, 1984. P. 147.
  133. ^ Council on Foreign Relations. Terrorism Havens: Palestinian Authority Council on Foreign Relations. December 2005
  134. ^ Khoury, Jack. "U.S. filmmakers plan documentary on Ma'alot massacre", Haaretz, March 7, 2007.
  135. ^ "Bullets, Bombs and a Sign of Hope", Time, May 27, 1974.
  136. ^ "Reality Check: Understanding the Mujahedin-e Khalq (PMOI/MEK)". The Huffington Post. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  137. ^ "U.S. Terrorism Report: MEK and Jundallah - The Iran Primer". usip.org. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  138. ^ Roy، Olivier (2005). Turkey Today: A European Nation?. London: Anthem Press. صفحة 170. 
  139. ^ Peterson، Scott (2007-07-06). "Turkish Kurds: some back the state". Christian Science Monitor. 
  140. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. The Basque History of the World: The Story of a Nation. New York: Penguin, 2001. P. 224.
  141. ^ "Goiz Argi". goizargi.com. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  142. ^ Hoffman 1998, P. 191.
  143. ^ Weinberg, Leonard. Global Terrorism: A Beginner's Guide. New York: Oneworld, 2008. P. 43.
  144. ^ Chaliand, Gerard. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. P. 251.
  145. ^ Chaliand, p. 250
  146. ^ "Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) (aka, PIRA, "the provos," Óglaigh na hÉireann) (UK separatists)". Council on Foreign Relations. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/provisional-irish-republican-army-ira-aka-pira-provos-oglaigh-na-heireann-uk-separatists/p9240
  147. ^ Chaliand, p. 251
  148. ^ Coogan, p. 356
  149. ^ Morris، Nigel (August 14, 2001). "Suspected IRA men arrested in Colombia". The Independent. London. مؤرشف من الأصل في March 22, 2009. اطلع عليه بتاريخ May 4, 2010. 
  150. ^ Rayment، Sean (March 10, 2002). "IRA link to PLO examined in hunt for deadly sniper". The Daily Telegraph. London. اطلع عليه بتاريخ May 4, 2010. 
  151. ^ McKittrick، David (October 4, 2002). "As three men go before a Colombian judge today, will their fate seal the course of peace in Ireland?". The Independent. London. اطلع عليه بتاريخ May 4, 2010. [وصلة مكسورة]
  152. ^ Blumenau, Bernhard. "The United Nations and Terrorism. Germany, Multilateralism, and Antiterrorism Efforts in the 1970s", Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, ch. 1. (ردمك 978-1-137-39196-4)
  153. ^ "Red Army Faction boss to be freed". BBC News. November 24, 2008. اطلع عليه بتاريخ May 4, 2010. 
  154. ^ Blumenau, Bernhard. "The United Nations and Terrorism. Germany, Multilateralism, and Antiterrorism Efforts in the 1970s", Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, ch. 2. (ردمك 978-1-137-39196-4)
  155. ^ Ed Vulliamy, Secret agents, freemasons, fascists... and a top-level campaign of political 'destabilisation', The Guardian, December 5, 1990
  156. ^ Hoffman, p.16
  157. ^ Chaliand, p.227
  158. ^ See Canadian Soldier
  159. ^ FLQ entry in the Canadian Encyclopedia نسخة محفوظة 2011-07-20 على موقع واي باك مشين. http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/front-de-liberation-du-quebec/
  160. ^ Amy Zalman. "Narcoterrorism". About.com News & Issues. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 27 نوفمبر 2015. 
  161. ^ [?url=http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_340/l_34020051223en00640066.pdf "Archived copy"] تحقق من قيمة |archiveurl= (مساعدة) (PDF). مؤرشف من الأصل في December 3, 2009. اطلع عليه بتاريخ April 19, 2012. 
  162. ^ Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm
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References[عدل]

  • Hoffman، Bruce (1998). Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press. 

قالب:Portalbar