وردت كلمة ميكفاه في الكتاب العبري، وهي تتضمن معاني أشمل، ولكن غالباً ما تشير إلى تجمع مياه.
يعتقد اليهود أن الانغمار الكامل بالمياه من أجل الوصول إلى النقاء الطقوسي (وجوب الطهارة بعد وقوع حدث ما Tumah and taharah).
- ^ "Jewish Practices & Rituals: Mikveh. History and Archaeology". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Thomson Gale. 2008. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 14 ديسمبر 2015.
Although water purification is referred to in the Old Testament, in regard to rituals and the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, with washing, sprinkling, and dipping in water, we do not hear of specific places or installations that people would constantly frequent for the purpose of ritually cleansing their flesh. The term mikveh was used in a very general sense in the Old Testament to refer to a body of water of indeterminate extent (cf. Gen. 1:10; Ex. 7:19), or more specifically to waters gathered from a spring or within a cistern (Lev. 11: 36) or waters designated for a large reservoir situated in Jerusalem (Isa. 22: 11). None of these places are mentioned as having been used for ritual purification in any way. Hence, the concept of the mikveh as a hewn cave or constructed purification pool attached to one's dwelling or place of work is undoubtedly a later one.
- ^ Andrea M. Berlin (2013). Manifest Identity: From Ioudaios to Jew: Household Judaism as Anti-Hellenization in the Late Hasmonean Era (PDF). Between Cooperation and Hostility: Multiple Identities in Ancient Judaism and the Interaction with Foreign Powers. Journal of Ancient Judaism. Supplements - Band 011. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. صفحة 169. ISBN 978-3-525-55051-9. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 14 ديسمبر 2015.
.... both mikva’ot and the new vessels.... "household Judaism".... specific behavior carried out via material objects. .... the specific objects are new, first appearing in the early years of the last century BCE but not before.
- ^ Henry Curtis Pelgrift (10 December 2015). "2,200-Year-Old Duck-Shaped Shovel Unearthed in Ancient Galilee". Bible History Daily. Biblical Archaeology Society. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 14 ديسمبر 2015.
“Archaeologically, it’s very hard to tell who’s a Jew in the third or second century B.C.,” excavation director Uzi Leibner explained to The Times of Israel, because the later indicators like mikvaot (Jewish ritual baths) and certain ritual objects were not present at that time.