اللجنة النرويجية لجائزة نوبل
Its five members are appointed by the البرلمان النرويجي and today roughly represent the political makeup of that body. In his will, ألفرد نوبل tasked the Parliament of Norway with selecting the winners of the Nobel Peace Prize. At the time, Norway and Sweden were in الاتحاد بين السويد والنرويج. Despite its members being appointed by parliament, the committee is a private body tasked with awarding a private prize. In recent decades, most committee members have been retired politicians.
The committee is assisted by the Norwegian Nobel Institute, its secretariat, and the committee holds their meetings in the institute's building, where the winner is also announced. The award ceremony, however, takes place in Oslo City Hall (since 1990).
ألفرد نوبل died in December 1896, and in January 1897 the contents of his وصية were unveiled. It was written as early as in 1895. In his will, it was declared that a جائزة نوبل للسلام should be awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses", and that some of Nobel's money was to be donated to this prize. The مؤسسة نوبل manages the assets. The other جائزة نوبلs were to be awarded by Swedish bodies (الأكاديمية السويدية, الأكاديمية الملكية السويدية للعلوم, معهد كارولنسكا) that already existed, whereas the responsibility for the Peace Prize was given to the البرلمان النرويجي, specifically "a committee of five persons to be elected" by it. A new body had to be created—the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
Jurist Fredrik Heffermehl has noted that a legislative body could not necessarily be expected to handle a judicial task like managing a legal will. The task of a parliament is to create and change laws whereas a will can not be changed unless the premises are clearly outdated. However, this question was not debated in depth, out of contemporary fear that the donated money might be lost in legal battles if the body was not created soon. On 26 April 1897 the Norwegian Parliament accepted the assignment and on 5 August the same year it formalized the process of election and service time for committee members. The first Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to جان هنري دونانت and فريدريك باسي. In the beginning, the committee was filled with active parliamentarians and the annual reports were discussed in parliamentary sessions. These ties to the Norwegian Parliament were later weakened so that the committee became more independent. Accordingly, the name was changed from the Norwegian Nobel Committee to the Nobel Committee of the Norwegian Parliament (بالنرويجية: Det norske Stortings Nobelkomité) in 1901, but changed back in 1977. Now, active parliamentarians cannot sit on the committee, unless they have explicitly stated their intent to step down shortly.
Nonetheless, the committee is still composed mainly of politicians. A 1903 proposition to elect a law scholar (Ebbe Hertzberg) was rejected. In late 1948, the election system was changed to make the committee more proportional with parliamentary representation of Norwegian political parties. The Norwegian Labour Party, which controlled a simple majority of seats in the Norwegian Parliament orchestrated this change. This practice has been cemented, but sharply criticized. There have been propositions about including non-Norwegian members in the committee, but this has never happened.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee is assisted by the Norwegian Nobel Institute, established in 1904. The committee might receive well more than a hundred nominations and asks the Nobel Institute in February every year to research about twenty candidates. The director of the Nobel Institute also serves as secretary to the Norwegian Nobel Committee; currently this position belongs to Olav Njølstad. Kaci Kullmann Five has been the Norwegian Nobel Committee's leader since March 2015.
List of Chairpersons[عدل]
- List of chairpersons
- 1900-1901: برنارد جيتز
- 1901-1922: يورغن لوفلاند
- 1922-1922: هانز جاكوب هورست
- 1922-1941: فريدريك ستانغ
- 1941-1943: غونار يان
- 1944-1945: لا يوجد
- 1945-1945: كارل يواكيم هامبرو
- 1945-1966: غونار يان
- 1967-1967: نيلس لانغيلي
- 1967-1967: برنت إنج فالدسن
- 1968-1978: اسي ليونيه
- 1979-1981: جون سانيز
- 1982-1989: ايغل ارافيك
- 1990-1990: جيدسك أندرسون
- 1991-1999: فرانسيس سيجريستيد
- 2000-2002: غونار بيرج
- 2003-2008: اولي دانبولت مجوس
- 2009-2015: ثوربيورن ياغلاند
- 2015 إلى الوقت الحاضر: كاسي كولمان فايف
In January 1944 an attempt by the فيدكون كفيشلينغ government to take over the functions of the Nobel Committee led to the resignation of Jahn and other committee members. The Swedish consulate-general in Oslo formally took over the management of the Foundation's Oslo property on behalf of the Nobel Foundation.
- ^ Heffermehl, 2008: pp. 15–17
- "Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel". مؤسسة نوبل. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 14 June 2009.
- Arntzen، Jon Gunnar (2007). "Nobelprisen". In Henriksen, Petter. Store norske leksikon (باللغة Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 14 June 2009.
- ^ Heffermehl, 2008: p. 39
- Heffermehl, 2008: p. 72
- Heffermehl, 2008: pp. 53–54
- Helljesen، Geir. "Bare nordmenn i Nobelkomiteen" (باللغة Norwegian). Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 14 June 2009.
- ^ Heffermehl, 2008: pp. 84–85
- ^ Dahl، Miriam Stackpole (10 October 2008). "Fredspriskuppet". Ny Tid (باللغة Norwegian). اطلع عليه بتاريخ 12 December 2008.
- ^ Heffermehl, 2008: pp. 50–51
- ^ Heffermehl, 2008: pp. 60–64
- ^ "The Norwegian Nobel Committee 1901-2008". Nobelprize.org. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 1 February 2012.
- Heffermehl، Fredrik (2008). Nobels vilje (باللغة Norwegian). Oslo: Vidarforlaget. ISBN 978-82-7990-074-0.
- Heffermehl, Fredrik (2010). The Nobel Peace Prize. What Nobel really wanted'. Sta Barbara: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-38744-9.