ويكيبيديا:الألفبائية الصوتية الدولية

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
(بالتحويل من ويكيبيديا:أصد)
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في الأسفل، جدول مفتاح رموز الألفبائية الصوتية الدولية.

رمز مثل وصف
A
 (ع) [ a ] Spanish casa, French patte, German Mann For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
 (ع) [ aː ] German Aachen, French gare Long [a].
[ ɐ ] RP cut, German Kaiserslautern (With English, [ɐ] is normally written "[ʌ]".)
 (ع) [ ɑ ] Finnish Linna, Dutch bad
 (ع) [ ɑː ] RP father, French pâte Long [ɑ].
[ ɑ̃ ] French Caen, sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
 (ع) [ ɒ ] RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
 (ع) [ ʌ ] Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When "[ʌ]" is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
 (ع) [ æ ] RP cat
B
 (ع) [ b ] English babble
 (ع) [ ɓ ] Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp.
 (ع) [ ʙ ] Like the brrr sound made when cold.
 (ع) [ β ] Spanish la Bamba Like [b], but with the lips not quite touching.
C
 (ع) [ c ] Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
 (ع) [ ç ] German Ich More y-like than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
 (ع) [ ɕ ] Mandarin Xi'an, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
 (ع) [ ɔ ] see under O
D
 (ع) [ d ] English did
 (ع) [ ɗ ] Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
 (ع) [ ɖ ] American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (ع) [ ð ] English the, bathe
 (ع) [ dz ]1 English adze, Italian zero
 (ع) [ dʒ ] English judge
[ dʑ ]  Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
[ dʐ ]  Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
 (ع) [ e ] Spanish fe; French clé
 (ع) [ eː ] German Klee Long [e]. Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
 (ع) [ ə ] English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
[ ɚ ] American English runner
 (ع) [ ɛ ] English bet
[ ɛ̃ ] French Agen, vin, main; Polish ręka Nasalized [ɛ].
 (ع) [ ɜ ] RP bird (long)
[ ɝ ] American English bird
F
 (ع) [ f ] English fun
 (ع) [ ɟ ] see under J
 (ع) [ ʄ ] see under J
G
 (ع) [ ɡ ] English gig (Should look like Opentail g.svg. No different from a Latin "g")
 (ع) [ ɠ ] Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
 (ع) [ ɢ ] Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in Gaddafi.
 (ع) [ ʒ ] see under Z English beige.
H
 (ع) [ h ] American English house
 (ع) [ ɦ ] English ahead, when said quickly.
[ ʰ ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
 (ع) [ ħ ] Arabic محمد Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
 (ع) [ ɥ ] see under U
[ ɮ ] see under L
I
 (ع) [ i ] French ville, Spanish Valladolid
 (ع) [ iː ] English sea Long [i].
 (ع) [ ɪ ] English sit
 (ع) [ ɨ ] Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
 (ع) [ j ] English yes, German Junge
[ ʲ ] Russian Ленин [lʲeˈnʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
 (ع) [ ʝ ] Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
 (ع) [ ɟ ] Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
 (ع) [ ʄ ] Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
 (ع) [ k ] English kick, skip
L
 (ع) [ l ] English leaf
 (ع) [ ɫ ] English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
 (ع) [ ɬ ] Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
Rather like [l] and [ʃ] or [l] and [θ] said together. Found in Welsh names like Lloyd and Llywelyn and نيلسون مانديلا's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
 (ع) [ ɭ ] Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (ع) [ ɺ ] A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
 (ع) [ ɮ ] Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
 (ع) [ m ] English mime
 (ع) [ ɱ ] English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ ɯ ] see under W
 (ع) [ ʍ ] see under W
N
 (ع) [ n ] English nun
 (ع) [ ŋ ] English sing
 (ع) [ ɲ ] Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon.
 (ع) [ ɳ ] Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] "Varuna" Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (ع) [ ɴ ] Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
 (ع) [ o ] Spanish no, French eau
 (ع) [ oː ] German Boden, French Vosges Long [o]. Somewhat reminiscent of English no.
 (ع) [ ɔ ] German Oldenburg, French Garonne
 (ع) [ ɔː ] RP law, French Limoges Long [ɔ].
[ ɔ̃ ] French Lyon, son; Polish kąt Nasalized [ɔ].
 (ع) [ ø ] French feu, bœufs Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
 (ع) [ øː ] German Goethe, French Dle, neutre Long [ø].
 (ع) [ ɵ ] Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front.
 (ع) [ œ ] French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
 (ع) [ œː ] French œuvre, heure Long [œ].
[ œ̃ ] French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
 (ع) [ θ ] English thigh, bath
 (ع) [ ɸ ] Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] Fuji Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
P
 (ع) [ p ] English pip, spit
Q
 (ع) [ q ] Arabic Qur’ān Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
 (ع) [ r ] Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Generally used for English [ɹ] when there's no need to be precise.)
 (ع) [ ɾ ] Spanish pero, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
 (ع) [ ʀ ] A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
 (ع) [ ɽ ] Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
 (ع) [ ɹ ] RP borrow
 (ع) [ ɻ ] American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
 (ع) [ ʁ ] French Paris, German Riemann Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
 (ع) [ s ] English sass
 (ع) [ ʃ ] English shoe
 (ع) [ ʂ ] Mandarin Shàolín, Russian Пушкин (Pushkin) Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
 (ع) [ t ] English tot, stop
 (ع) [ ʈ ] Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (ع) [ ts ] English cats, Russian царь tsar
[ tʃ ]  English church
[ tɕ ]  Mandarin 北京  (ع) Běijīng, Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
[ tʂ ]  Mandarin zh, Polish cz Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back .
U
 (ع) [ u ] French vous "you"
 (ع) [ uː ] French Rocquencourt, German Schumacher, close to RP food Long [u].
 (ع) [ ʊ ] English foot, German Bundesrepublik
 (ع) [ ʉ ] Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (ع) [ ɥ ] French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
 (ع) [ ɯ ] see under W
V
 (ع) [ v ] English verve
 (ع) [ ʋ ] Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
 (ع) [ ɣ ] Arabic / Swahili ghali "expensive" Sounds rather like French [ʁ].
 (ع) [ ɤ ] Mandarin Hénán Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
[ ʌ ] see under A
W
 (ع) [ w ] English wow
[ ʷ ] English rain [ɹʷeɪn] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, quick.
 (ع) [ ʍ ] what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
 (ع) [ ɯ ] Turkish kayık "caïque" Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
 (ع) [ ɰ ] Spanish agua
X
 (ع) [ x ] Scottish English loch, German Bach, Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good"
 (ع) [ χ ] northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back , in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
 (ع) [ y ] French rue Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (ع) [ yː ] German Bülow, French sûr Long [y].
 (ع) [ ʏ ] German Eisenhüttenstadt Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
 (ع) [ ʎ ] Spanish llama (Castilian) More y-like than [l]. Rather like English volume.
 (ع) [ ɥ ] see under U
 (ع) [ ɤ ] see under V
[ ɣ ] see under V
Z
 (ع) [ z ] English zoos
 (ع) [ ʒ ] English vision, French journal
 (ع) [ ʑ ] formal Russian жжёшь [ʑːoʂ] "you burn", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
 (ع) [ ʐ ] Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", Russian журнал "journal" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back .
[ ɮ ] see under L
other
 (ع) [ ʔ ] English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɨnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [ʌˈʔæpl̩].
 (ع) [ ʕ ] Arabic عربي (carabī) "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat.
 (ع) [ ǀ ] English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǀ ], [ ɡǀ ], [ ŋǀ ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
 (ع) [ ǁ ] English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǁ ], [ ɡǁ ], [ ŋǁ ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
 (ع) [ ǃ ] Zulu iqaqa "polecat" A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǃ ], [ ɡǃ ], [ ŋǃ ].

شكلات[عدل]

رمز مثل وصف
[ ˈa ] pronunciation
[pʰɹɜʊ̯ˌnɐnsiˈeɪʃn̩]
Main stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ ˌa ] Weaker stress. The mark denotes the stress of the following syllable.
[ aː ] English shh! [ʃː] Long. Often used with English vowels or diphthongs: Mayo /ˈmeːoː/ for [ˈmeɪ̯ɜʊ̯], etc.
[ aˑ ] RP caught [ˈkʰɔˑt] Semi-long. (Although the vowel is different, this is also longer than cot [ˈkʰɒt].)
[ a̯ ] English cow [kʰaʊ̯], koi [kʰɔɪ̯] This vowel runs into the vowel next to it. (In English, the diacritic is generally left off: [kaʊ].)
[ ã ] French vin blanc [vɛ̃blɑ̃] "white wine" A nasal vowel, as with a Texas twang.
[ n̥ ] Sounds like a loud whisper; [n̥] is like a whispered breath through the nose. [l̥] is found in Tibetan Lhasa.
[ n̩ ] English button A consonant without a vowel. (English [n̩] is often transcribed /ən/.)
[ d̪ ] Spanish dos, French deux The tongue touches the teeth more than it does in English.
[ kʰ ] English come Aspirated consonant, pronounced with a puff of air. Similarly [tʰ pʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ].
[ k’ ] Zulu ukuza "come" Like a popped [k], pushed from the throat. Similarly [t’ p’ q’ tʃ’ ts’ tɬ’].
[ á ] Mandarin [mámā] "mother" High tone. Careful!
The بينيين Romanization used for Mandarin has these same diacritics, but with different values.
However, Thai Romanization uses them the way the IPA does.
[ ā ] Mandarin 妈 [mámā] "mother" Mid tone.
[ à ] Mandarin [màdɤ] "horse's" Low tone.
[ â ] Mandarin 骂 [mâ] "scold" Falling tone.
[ ǎ ] Mandarin 麻 [mǎ] "hemp" Rising tone.
[ . ] English courtship [ˈkɔrt.ʃɪp] Syllable break. (this is often redundant and therefore left off)