تولسيداس

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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تولسيداس (الأبجدية الهندوسية: तुलसीदास، Hindi pronunciation: [t̪uls̪iːd̪ɑːs̪] والمعروف أيضا باسم جوسوامي تولسيداس[1] (1497/1532[2]–1623) قديس وشاعر ومُصلح وفيلسوف هندوسي معروف بتفانيه الشديد في عبادة الإله راما (Rama). ألف العديد من الأعمال الشعبية، أشهرها ملحمة راماشاريتاماناس (Ramcharitmanas) التي تروي قصة رامايانا (Ramayana) السنسكريتي في اللغة الأوادية (Awadhi) الدارجة. وكان يتصف طيلة حياته بأنه تناسخ للشاعر فالاميكي (Valmiki) مؤلف الرامايانا الأصلية بالسنسكريتية.[3] كما يعتبر تولسيداس هو مؤلف الترنيمة التعبدية هانومان شاليسا (Hanuman Chalisa) التي تصف هانومان قائد القردة المقدسة المؤمن بالإله راما.[4] عاش تولسيداس طيلة حياته في مدينة فارنيسي المعروفة حاليًا باسم بيناريس ومات فيها.[5] وقد سُميت تولسي غات إحدى مناطق مدينة فارنيسي باسمه بعد موته.[1] كما أسس تولسيداس معبد سانكاتموخان المخصص لهانومان حيث يقع في المكان الذي يُعتقد أنه تمت رؤية هانومان فيه.[6] ويعد تولسيداس هو أول من بدأ في مسرحيات رامليلا (Ramlila)، تلك المؤلفات المسرحية الفلكلورية المتعلقة برامايانا.[7] واشتُهر بأنه واحد من أعظم الشعراء في الآداب الهندوسية والهندية والعالمية.[8][9][10][11] ولا يزال تأثير أعمال تولسيداس في الفنون والثقافة الهندية وكذلك المجتمع الهندي ظاهر حتى اليوم خاصة في اللغة الدارجة ومسرحيات رامليلا (Ramlila) والموسيقى الكلاسيكية الهندوستانية والموسيقى الشعبية والمسلسلات التليفزيونية.[7][12][13][14][15][16]

المراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ أ ب de Bruyn، Pippa؛ Bain، Dr. Keith؛ Allardice، David؛ Joshi، Shonar (2010). Frommer's India. Hoboken, New Jersey, United States of America: John Wiley and Sons. صفحة 471. ISBN 0-470-60264-3, 9780470602645 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  2. ^ اكتب عنوان المرجع بين علامتي الفتح <ref> والإغلاق </ref> للمرجع pandey-tulsibirth
  3. ^ Lutgendorf 2007, p. 293.
  4. ^ Rambhadracharya 2008, p. 306.
  5. ^ Prasad 2008, p. 857, quoting Mata Prasad Gupta: Although he paid occasional visits to several places of pilgrimage associated with Rama, his permanent residence was in Kashi.
  6. ^ Callewaert، Winand M.؛ Schilder، Robert (2000). Banaras: Vision of a Living Ancient Tradition. New Delhi, India: Hemkunt Press. صفحة 90. ISBN 81-7010-302-9, 9788170103028 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  7. ^ أ ب Handoo 1964, p. 128: ... this book ... is also a drama, because Goswami Tulasidasa started his Ram Lila on the basis of this book, which even now is performed in the same manner everywhere.
  8. ^ Prasad 2008, p. xii: He is not only the supreme poet, but the unofficial poet-laureate of India.
  9. ^ Prasad 2008, p. xix: Of Tulasidasa's place among the major Indian poets there can be no question: he is as sublime as Valmiki and as elegant as Kalidasa in his handling of the theme.
  10. ^ Jones، Constance؛ Ryan، James D. (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Encyclopedia of World Religions) (الطبعة Hardbound, Illustrated). New York, New York, United States of America: Infobase Publishing. صفحة 456. ISBN 0-8160-5458-4, 9780816054589 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). "It can be said without reservation that Tulsidas is the greatest poet to write in the Hindi language. Tulsidas was a Brahmin by birth and was believed to be a reincarnation of the author of the Sanskrit Ramayana, Valmiki." 
  11. ^ Sahni، Bhisham (2000). Nilu, Nilima, Nilofara (باللغة Hindi). New Delhi, India: Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd. صفحات 78–80. ISBN 81-7178-960-9, 9788171789603 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). "हिन्दी का सौभाग्य है कि उसके काव्यकुंज की तुलसी-मंजरी की जैसी सुगंध संसार की साहित्य वाटिका में शायद कहीं नहीं। ... आकर्षण दोनों में अत्यधिक है अपने-अपने ढंग पर दोनों ही बहुत बड़े हैं, पर फिर भी सब तरफ़ से केवल काव्य के सौंदर्य पर विचार करने पर तुलसीदास ही बड़े ठहरते हैं – भाषा साहित्य में रवीन्द्रनाथ के संबंध में कहना पड़ता है कि भ्रम त्रुटियाँ मिल सकती हैं पर तुलसीदास के संबंध में कोई शायद ही मिले। ... और यही कारण है निराला जी तुलसीदास को कालिदास, व्यास, वाल्मीकि, होमर, गेटे और शेक्सपियर के समकक्ष रखकर उनके महत्त्व का आकलन करते हैं।" 
  12. ^ Lutgendorf 1991, p. 11: ... – scores of lines from the Rāmcaritmānas have entered folk speech as proverbs – ...
  13. ^ Mitra، Swati (May 5, 2002). Good Earth Varanasi City Guide. New Delhi, India: Eicher Goodearth Publications. صفحة 216. ISBN 81-87780-04-5, 9788187780045 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  14. ^ Subramanian، Vadakaymadam Krishnier (2008). Hymns of Tulsidas. New Delhi, India: Abhinav Publications. صفحة Inside Cover. ISBN 81-7017-496-1, 9788170174967 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). "Famous classical singers like Paluskar, Anoop Jalota and MS Subbulakshmi have popularised Tulsidas's hymns among the people of India." 
  15. ^ Lutgendorf 1991, p. 411: The hottest-selling recording in the thriving cassette stalls of Banaras in 1984... was a boxed set of eight cassettes comprising an abridged version of the Manas sung by the popular film singer Mukesh... it is impossible to say how many of the sets were sold, but by 1984 their impact was both visible and audible. One could scarcely attend a public or private religious function in Banaras that year without hearing, over the obligatory loudspeaker system, the familiar strains of Murli Manohar Svarup's orchestration and Mukesh's mellifluous chanting.
  16. ^ Lutgendorf 1991, p. 411–412: On January 25, 1987, a new program premiered on India's government-run television network, Doordarshan... it was the first time that television was used to present a serialized adaption of a religious epic. The chosen work was the Ramayan and the major source for the screenplay was the Manas. Long before the airing of the main story concluded on July 31, 1988, the Ramayan had become the most popular program ever shown on Indian television, drawing an estimated one hundred million viewers and generating unprecedented advertising revenues. Throughout much of the country, activities came to a halt on Sunday mornings and streets and bazaars took on a deserted look, as people gathered before their own and neighbors' TV sets.... The phenomenal impact of the Ramayan serial merits closer examination than it can be given here, but it is clear that the production and the response it engendered once again dramatized the role of the epic as a principal medium not only for individual and collective religious experience but also for public discourse and social and cultural reflection.
  • Dwivedi، Hazari Prasad (2008). हिन्दी साहित्य की भूमिका [Introduction to Hindi Literature] (باللغة Hindi). New Delhi, India: Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-267-0579-5, 9788126705795 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Dwivedi، Hazari Prasad (2009). हिन्दी साहित्य: उद्भव और विकास [Hindi Literature: Beginnings and Developments] (باللغة Hindi). New Delhi, India: Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-267-0035-1, 9788126700356 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Growse، Frederic Salmon (1914). The Rámáyana of Tulsi Dás (الطبعة Sixth, revised and corrected). Allahabad, India: Ram Narain Lal Publisher and Bookseller. اطلع عليه بتاريخ July 10, 2011. 
  • Indradevnarayan (1996) [1937]. कवितावली [Collection of Kavittas] (الطبعة 47th). Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: Gita Press. 108. 
  • Handoo، Chandra Kumari (1964). Tulasīdāsa: Poet, Saint and Philosopher of the Sixteenth Century. Bombay, Maharashtra, India: Orient Longmans. ASIN B001B3IYU8. 
  • Lamb، Ramdas (July 2002). Rapt in the Name: The Ramnamis, Ramnam, and Untouchable Religion in Central India. Albany, New York, United States of America: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5385-5, 9780791453858 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Lutgendorf، Philip (July 23, 1991). The Life of a Text: Performing the 'Ramcaritmanas' of Tulsidas. Berkeley, California, United States of America: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06690-8. 
  • Lutgendorf، Philip (2007). Hanuman's Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey (الطبعة Illustrated). New York, New York, United States of America: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530921-9, 9780195309218 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Macfie، J. M. (May 23, 2004). The Ramayan of Tulsidas or the Bible of Northern India. Whitefish, Montana, United States of America: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4179-1498-X, 9781417914982 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). اطلع عليه بتاريخ June 24, 2011. 
  • Mishra، Jwalaprasad (September 2010) [1858]. श्रीगोस्वामितुलसीदासजीकृत रामायण: विद्यावारिधि पं० ज्वालाप्रसादजीमिश्रकृत संजीवनीटीकासहित [The Ramayana composed by Goswami Tulsidas: With the Sanjivani commentary composed by Vidyavaridhi Pandit Jwalaprasad Mishra] (باللغة Hindi). Mumbai, India: Khemraj Shrikrishnadass. 
  • Pandey، Ram Ganesh (2008) [2003]. तुलसी जन्म भूमि: शोध समीक्षा [The Birthplace of Tulasidasa: Investigative Research] (باللغة Hindi) (الطبعة Corrected and extended edition). Chitrakuta, Uttar Pradesh, India: Bharati Bhavan Publication. 
  • Poddar، Hanuman Prasad (1996) [1940]. दोहावली [Collection of Dohas] (باللغة Hindi) (الطبعة 37th). Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: Gita Press. 107. 
  • Poddar، Hanuman Prasad (1997) [1921]. विनयपत्रिका [Petition of Humility] (باللغة Hindi) (الطبعة 47th). Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: Gita Press. 105. 
  • Prasad، Ram Chandra (2008) [1988]. Tulasidasa's Shri Ramacharitamanasa: The Holy Lake Of The Acts Of Rama (الطبعة Illustrated, reprint). Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0443-2. 
  • Publisher، Gita Press (2004). Śrīrāmacaritamānasa or The Mānasa lake brimming over with the exploits of Śrī Rāma (with Hindi text and English translation). Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: Gita Press. ISBN 81-293-0146-6. 
  • Publisher، Gita Press (2007). श्रीरामचरितमानस मूल गुटका (विशिष्ट संस्करण) [Śrīrāmacaritamānasa Original Booklet (Special Edition)] (باللغة Hindi) (الطبعة 9th). Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India: Gita Press. ISBN 81-293-1090-2. 1544. 
  • Ralhan، O. P. (1997). The great gurus of the Sikhs, Volume 1. New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-7488-479-3, 9788174884794 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Rambhadracharya، Swami (April 7, 2008). श्रीरामचरितमानस - भावार्थबोधिनी हिन्दी टीका (तुलसीपीठ संस्करण) [Śrīrāmacaritamānasa - The Bhāvārthabodhinī Hindi commentary (Tulasīpīṭha edition)] (باللغة Hindi) (الطبعة 3rd). Chitrakuta, Uttar Pradesh, India: Jagadguru Rambhadracharya Handicapped University. اطلع عليه بتاريخ July 11, 2011. 
  • Shukla، Usha Devi (2002). "Gosvāmī Tulasīdāsa and the Rāmacaritamānasa". Rāmacaritamānasa in South Africa. New Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1893-8, 9788120818934 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Singh، Uday Bhanu (2005). तुलसी [Tulsidas] (باللغة Hindi). New Delhi, India: Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-7119-736-1, 9788171197361 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Singh، Uday Bhanu (2008). तुलसी काव्य मीमांसा [Investigation into the poetry of Tulsidas] (باللغة Hindi). New Delhi, India: Rajkamal Prakashan Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-7119-686-1, 9788171196869 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 
  • Tripathi، Shiva Kumar (2004). "Who and What was Tulsidas?". A Garden of Deeds: Ramacharitmanas, a Message of Human Ethics. Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America: iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-30792-2, 9780595307920 تأكد من صحة |isbn= (help). 

وصلات خارجية[عدل]