جماعة الجيش الأحمر
جماعة الجيش الأحمر RAF (بالألمانية: Rote Armee Fraktion روته أرمي فراكتسيون) (في مراحلها الأولى كانت تعرف عموماً باسم مجموعة Baader-Meinhof بادر ماينهوف)، إحدى أبرز وأنشط الجماعات اليسارية المسلحة بألمانيا الغربية ما بعد الحرب. وتصف نفسها بأنها جماعة "مسلحة مدنية" شيوعية تشارك في مقاومة مسلحة، في حين أن حكومة ألمانية الغربية تعتبرها جماعة أرهابية. أسس الجيش الأحمر رسمياً في عام 1970 : أندرياس بادر، غودرون إنسلين، هورست مالر، أولريكي ماري ماينهوف، إرمغارت مولر وغيرهم.
نشط فصيل الجيش الأحمر منذ السبعينات حتى عام 1993، مرتكباً العديد من العمليات لا سيما في خريف عام 1977، الأمر الذي أدى إلى أزمة وطنية عُرفت باسم "الخريف الألماني". كانت مسؤولة عن موت 34 شحصاً بما في ذلك العديد من الاهداف الثانوية، مثل الحراس الشخصيين والسائقين - والعديد من الجرحى في ما يقرب من 30 عاما من وجودها.
وسط جدل واسع النطاق إعلامياً، نظر الرئيس الألماني هورست كولر في طلب العفو المقدم من عضو الجيش الأحمر كريستيان كلار والمحكوم عليه بالسجن مدى الحياة ست مرات، ولكن هذا الطلب رُفض في 7 مايو آيار 2007. فيما تحصلت عضوة الجيش الأحمر بريغيتي مونهاوبت على الإفراج المشروط لمدة خمس سنوات من قبل المحكمة الألمانية في 12 فبراير 2007، وأُطلق سراح إيفا هاولي في 17 أغسطس 2007.
أصل المجموعة تعود لحركة الاحتجاج في ألمانيا الغربية. شهدت الدول الصناعية في أواخر الستينات من القرن الماضي اضطرابات اجتماعية متصلة ارتبطت بمواليد ولدوا بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية، الحرب الباردة، ونهاية الاستعمار. وتحرير المرأة والمناهضة للإمبريالية وجدت حديثا وقضايا هوية الشباب وقضايا مثل العنصرية، كانت في طليعة اهتمام اليسارية سياسيا.
في ألمانيا الغربية، في 1966 بدأ ظهور التحالف الكبير الأول بين الحزبين الرئيسيين، الحزب الديمقراطي الاشتراكي وحزب الاتحاد الديمقراطي المسيحي، تحت قيادة المستشار جيورج كيسنجر. مع 95 في المئة من البوندستاغ التي تسيطر عليها قوات التحالف، تم تشكيل المعارضة خارج البرلمان بقصد توليد الاحتجاج والنشاط السياسي من خارج الحكومة. نفور الكثير من الشباب عن والديهم وعن مؤسسات الدولة. قاد الإرث التاريخي للنازية ثغرة بين الأجيال وعمل على تزايد الشك وزيادة الاستبدادية في المجتمع (ويرى بعض المحللين ان ذلك أثر في إيطاليا، مما أدى إلى ظهور حركة الألوية الحمراء.
|22 October 1971||Hamburg||مقتل ضابط شرطة||RAF members Irmgard Möller and Gerhard Müller attempted to rescue Margrit Schiller who was being arrested by the police by engaging in a shootout. Police sergeant Heinz Lemke was shot in the foot, while Sergeant Norbert Schmid, 33, was killed, becoming the first murder to be attributed to the RAF.|
|22 December 1971||Kaiserslautern||مقتل ضابط شرطة||German Police officer Herbert Schoner, 32, was shot by members of the RAF in a bank robbery. The four militants escaped with 134,000 Deutsche Marks.|
|11 May 1972||Frankfurt am Main||تفجير ثكنة عسكرية أمريكية||US Officer Paul A. Bloomquist dead,
|12 May 1972||Augsburg and Munich||Bombing of a police station in Augsburg and the Bavarian State Criminal Investigations Agency in Munich||5 police-officers wounded. Claimed by the Tommy Weissbecker Commando.|
|16 May 1972||Karlsruhe||تفجير سيارة القاضي الاتحادي للبدينبيرغ||His wife was driving the car and was wounded. Claimed by the Manfred Grashof commando.|
|19 May 1972||Hamburg||Bombing of the Axel Springer Verlag||17 wounded. Ilse Stachowiak was involved in the bombing.|
|24 May 1972 18:10CET||Heidelberg||Bombing outside of Officers Club followed by a second bomb moments later in front of Army Security Agency (ASA), U.S. Army in Europe (HQ USAREUR) at Campbell Barracks. Known involved RAF members: Irmgard Möller and Angela Luther, Andreas Baader, Ulrike Meinhof, Gudrun Ensslin, Holger Meins, Jan-Carl Raspe.||3 dead (Ronald A. Woodward, Charles L. Peck and Captain Clyde R. Bonner), 5 wounded. Claimed by 15 July Commando (in honour of Petra Schelm). Executed by Irmgard Moeller.|
|24 April 1975||Stockholm||West German embassy siege, murder of Andreas von Mirbach and Dr. Heinz Hillegaart||4 dead, of whom 2 were RAF members|
|7 May 1976||Sprendlingen near Offenbach||Police officer killed||22 year old Fritz Sippel was shot in the head when checking an RAF member's identity papers.|
|4 January 1977||Giessen||Attack against US 42nd Field Artillery Brigade at Gießen.||In a failed attack against the Gießen army base, the RAF sought to capture or destroy nuclear weapons present. A diversionary bomb attack on a fuel tank failed to fully ignite the fuel, and the assault on the armory was then repulsed, with several RAF members killed in the ensuing firefight. The presence of U.S. warheads on German soil was classified and officially denied at the time, and the incident received little publicity. General William Burns, who commanded the base in 1977, detailed the attack in a 1996 interview.|
|7 April 1977||Karlsruhe||Assassination of the federal prosecutor-general Siegfried Buback||The driver and another passenger were also killed. Claimed by the Ulrike Meinhof Commando. This murder case was brought up again after the 30 year commemoration in April 2007 when information from former RAF member Peter-Jürgen Boock surfaced in media reports.|
|30 July 1977||Oberursel (Taunus)||The director of Dresdner Bank, Jürgen Ponto, is shot in his home during an attempted kidnapping. Ponto later dies from his injuries.|
|5 September 1977
18 October 1977
|Cologne resp.||Hanns-Martin Schleyer, chairman of the German Employers' Association, is kidnapped and later shot||3 police-officers and the driver are killed during the kidnapping|
|22 September 1977||Utrecht, Netherlands||Shooting outside a bar||Arie Kranenburg (46), Dutch policeman, shot and killed by RAF Knut Folkerts|
|24 September 1978||A forest near Dortmund||Murder of a police officer||Three RAF members (Angelika Speitel, Werner Lotze, Michael Knoll) were engaged in target-practice when they were confronted by police. A shoot-out followed where one police-man (Hans-Wilhelm Hans, 26) was shot dead, and one of the RAF terrorists (Knoll) was wounded so badly that he would later die from his injuries.|
|1 November 1978||Kerkrade||Gun-battle with four custom officials||Dionysius de Jong (19) was shot to death, and Johannes Goemanns (24) later died of his wounds, when they were involved in a gun-fight with RAF members (Adelheid Schulz and Rolf Heissler) who were trying to cross the Dutch border illegally.|
|25 June 1979||Mons, Belgium||Alexander Haig, Supreme Allied Commander of NATO escapes an assassination attempt||A land mine blew up under the bridge on which Haig's car was traveling, narrowly missing Haig's car and wounding three of his bodyguards in a following car. In 1993 a German Court sentenced Rolf Clemens Wagner, a former RAF member, to life imprisonment for the assassination attempt.|
|7 August 1981||Kaiserslautern, Germany||USAF Security Police Officer attacked in Kaiserslautern by Christian Klar and Brigitte Mohnhaupt and unknown third party. Security Police Officer on his way to work, riding a bicycle when he was attacked.||Security Police Officer survived the attack. Mohnhaupt and Klar fled the scene in a green VW. Unknown third party was injured or killed. He was never found.|
|31 August 1981||Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany||Large car-bomb explodes in the parking lot of Ramstein Air Base|
|15 September 1981||Heidelberg||Unsuccessful rocket propelled grenade attack against the car carrying the US Army's West German Commander Frederick J. Kroesen. Known involved RAF members: Brigitte Mohnhaupt, Christian Klar.|
|2 July 1982||Nurnberg||Unsuccessful sniper attack against US ARMY Nuclear Storage Site NATO-23. 4 Civilians died the next day due to High alert of American troops / accidental shooting.(2 Adults / 2 Children) Known involved RAF members: Christian Klar.||A family of 4 hunting mushrooms came through a fence downed by storms the day after the sniper incident and were killed by members of the 3/17th Field Artillery Battalion after being shot at just hours before. The 3/17 FA Battalion were guarding the NATO 2-3 Nuclear storage site at the time. The unit was fired upon several times the night before by Christian Klar. 2 US. Soldiers were slightly wounded 1 KIA.|
|18 December 1984||Oberammergau, West Germany||Unsuccessful attempt to bomb a School for NATO officers. The car bomb was discovered and defused.||A total of ten incidents followed over the next month, against US, British, and French targets.|
|1 February 1985||Gauting||Shooting||Ernst Zimmerman, head of the MTU is shot in the head in his home. Zimmermann died twelve hours later. The assassination was claimed by the Patsy O'Hara Commando.|
|8 August 1985||Rhein-Main Air Base (near Frankfurt)||A Volkswagen Passat exploded in the parking lot across from the base commander's building.||Two people are killed: Airman First Class Frank Scarton and Becky Bristol, a U.S. civilian employee who also was the spouse of a U.S. Air Force enlisted man. A granite monument marks the spot where they died. Twenty people are injured. Army Spec. Edward Pimental was kidnapped and killed the night before for his military ID card which was used to gain access to the base. The French terrorist organization Action Directe is suspected to have collaborated with the RAF on this attack. Birgit Hogefeld and Eva Haule have been convicted for their involvement in this event.|
|9 July 1986||Straßlach (near Munich)||Shooting of Siemens-manager Karl Heinz Beckurts and driver Eckhard Groppler|
|30 November 1989||Bad Homburg v. d. Höhe||Bombing of the car carrying the chairman of Deutsche Bank Alfred Herrhausen||The case remained open for a long time, as the delicate method employed baffled the German prosecutors, as it could not come from guerillas like the RAF. Also, all suspects of the RAF were not charged due to alibis. However, The case is receiving new light in late 2007 by the German authorities that Stasi, the East German secret police, played a role in the assassination of Mr. Herrhausen, as the bombing method was the exactly the same one that had been developed by the Stasis.|
|1 April 1991||Düsseldorf||Assassination of Detlev Karsten Rohwedder, at his house in Düsseldorf||As the chief of the Treuhandanstalt, a powerful trust that controlled most state-owned assets in the former East Germany, Mr. Rohwedder was in charge of privatizing the assets of the former German Democratic Republic.|
|27 March 1993||Weiterstadt||Attacks with explosives at the construction site of a new prison.||Led to the capture of two RAF members three months later at a train station, and a shoot-out between RAF member Wolfgang Grams and a GSG 9 squad; GSG9 officer Michael Newrzella was killed before Grams shot himself, while Birgit Hogefeld was arrested. Damage 123 million DM (over 50 million euro). The attack caused a four year delay in the completion of the site, that had been short before commissioning in 1993.|
- ^ "The Crisis Years of the RAF / The Baader Meinhof Terrorist" at the Terrosim [sic] in Germany. The RAF / Baader Meinhof Group website.
- ^ Jeffrey Herf, History.UMD.edu, "An Age of Murder: Ideology and Terror in Germany, 1969–1991", lecture at the German Historical Institute in Washington, 27 September 2007.
- ^ LabourHistory.net
- ^ Michael Krepon, Ziad Haider & Charles Thornton, Are Tactical Nuclear Weapons Needed in South Asia?, in Michael Krepon, Rodney W. Jones, and Ziad Haider (eds.), Escalation Control and the Nuclear Option in South Asia, Stimson Publications, 2004.
- ^ Cockburn، Andrew؛ Cockburn، Leslie (1997). One Point Safe. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-48560-9.; Barry L. Rothberg, "Averting Armageddon: Preveting Nuclear Terrorism in the United States", Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, 1997, pp. 79–134.
- ^ Time.com
- ^ LabourHistory.net
- ^ LabourHistory.net
- ^ RAF-Geschichte-der-rote-armee-fraktion.de
- "German Guilty in '79 Attack At NATO on Alexander Haig". The New York Times. 25 November 1993.
- ^ "German terrorists raid U.S. consul's home", New York Times, 4 January 1985.
- ^ Books.Google.com