وجود المسيح السابق

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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مفهوم وجود المسيح السابق يؤكد وجود المسيح قبل تجسده بصورة يسوع. أحد مقاطع الكتاب المقدس ذات الصلة هي John 1:1–18، حيث يتم تعريف المسيح (في التفسير الثالوثي) بأنه أقنوم إلهي موجود مسبقًا (حقيقة موضوعية) يسمى لوجوس أو الكلمة. هناك وجهات نظر لاثالوثية تشكك في جانب الوجود الشخصي السابق أو جانب الألوهية أو كليهما.

هذه العقيدة مدعومة في يوحنا 17:5 عندما يشير يسوع إلى المجد الذي كان لديه مع الآب "قبل وجود العالم" خلال خطاب الوداع.[1] يوحنا 17:24 يشير أيضا إلى الآب الذي أحب يسوع "قبل تأسيس العالم".[1]

المسيحية النيقية[عدل]

الله يستريح بعد الخلق - المسيح يصور بأنه خالق العالم في فسيفساء بيزنطية في مونريلي، صقلية. أصبحت صور الله الآب سائدة فقط في القرن الخامس عشر، وكان يسوع يظهر في كثير من الأحيان كبديل قبل ذلك.[2]

وجهات النظر اللاثالوثية[عدل]

إنكار العقيدة[عدل]

على مر التاريخ، كان هناك العديد من المجموعات والأفراد الذين يعتقدون أن وجود يسوع بدأ عندما تم ميلاده.[3] أولئك الذين يعتبرون أنفسهم مسيحيين بينما ينكرون وجود المسيح مسبقًا، يمكن تقسيمهم إلى مجموعتين.

أولاً، هناك من يقبل مع ذلك الولادة العذرية. وهذا يشمل السوسيينيين،[4] والموحدين الأوائل مثل جون بيدل،[5] وناثانييل لاردنر.[6] اليوم وجهة النظر هذه يحتفظ بها في المقام الأول الإخوة المسيحية.[7] هذه المجموعات تعتبر عادة أن المسيح قد نبئ به في العهد القديم، لكنه لم يكن موجودا قبل ولادته.[8]

ثانياً، هناك من ينكرون الولادة العذرية. وهذا يشمل الإبيونية والموحدين اللاحقين، مثل جوزيف بريستلي،[9][10][11] وتوماس جيفرسون.[12][13] غالبًا ما يوصف هذا الرأي بـ"التبنوي"، وفي القرن التاسع عشر كان يطلق عليه أيضًا اسم psilanthropism. وصف صموئيل تايلور كولريدج نفسه بأنه كان ذات يوم من أتباع تلك العقيدة، ويعتقد أن يسوع هو "الابن الحقيقي ليوسف".[14] كان فريدريك شلايرماخر، الذي يُطلق عليه أحيانًا "والد اللاهوت الليبرالي[15] أحد اللاهوتيين الألمان الذين تركوا فكرة الوجود الشخصي الوجودي السابق للمسيح، حيث علّموا أن "المسيح لم يكن إلهًا ولكن تم خلقه كرجل مثالي شكلت عصمته ألوهيته".[15] بالمثل، رفض ألبريشت ريتشل وجود المسيح المسبق، مؤكدًا أن المسيح كان "ابن الله" فقط بمعنى أن "الله قد كشف عن نفسه في المسيح" [15] وأنجز المسيح "عملًا دينيًا وأخلاقيًا فينا الله وحده كان يمكن أن يفعله".[15] في وقت لاحق، وصف رودولف بولتمان وجود المسيح السابق بأنه "ليس فقط غير منطقي ولكن بلا معنى تمامًا".[16]

انظر أيضا[عدل]


المراجع[عدل]

  1. أ ب Creation and Christology by Masanobu Endo 2002
  2. ^ George Ferguson, 1996 Signs & symbols in Christian art (ردمك 0-19-501432-4) page 92
  3. ^ Eckhard J. Schnabel Early Christian Mission: Paul & the early church 2004 Page 1041 "A Christian community is documented for Bostra for a.d. 250 at the latest: Eusebius mentions Beryllos, the "bishop [episkopos] of the Arabs in Bostra," who denied the preexistence of Christ and who was the subject of discussion at a synod in ..."
  4. ^ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Trinity > Unitarianism: "This Racovian Catechism identifies the God of Israel with the Father of Christ... Both the Trinity and the doctrine of two natures (divine and human) in Christ are argued to be both contradictory and unsupported by the Bible. It is argued that Christ is a man who did not pre-exist his miraculous conception in Mary, though he's denied to be 'merely' a man, but affirmed to be the unique Son of God, the Messiah, worthy of worship and a proper recipient of prayer." نسخة محفوظة 9 أغسطس 2019 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  5. ^ J. Biddle A Twofold Catechism نسخة محفوظة 12 June 2011 على موقع واي باك مشين., chap. 4: "How was Jesus Christ born?" as well as "How many Lords of Christians are there, by way of distinction from the one God?" and "Doth the Scripture avouch Christ to be the Son of God because he was eternally begotten out of the Divine essence; or for other reasons agreeing to him only as a man?"
  6. ^ Lardner N. Letter on the Logos (1759) in The works of Nathaniel Lardner in five volumes, Volume 5, p. 380–3. Online: "All these texts seem to me sufficient to satisfy us, that by 'the Word,' which St. John says, 'was in the beginning, and was with God, and was God,' he does not mean a being separate from God, and inferior to him, but God himself, or the wisdom and power of God, which is the same as God, even the Father, who alone is God, nor is there any other." as well as "Jesus is the Son of God, upon account of his miraculous conception and birth. Luke i. 31–35." (pp. 82–3) نسخة محفوظة 17 يناير 2015 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  7. ^ Alan Hayward, Did Jesus Really Come Down from Heaven?, pamphlet from the Christadelphian Auxiliary Lecturing Society, 1975: "The third view is held by Christadelphians and some others. According to this view Jesus did not live personally in heaven before he was born on earth; and the verses which refer to his heavenly origin must be understood figuratively.... The birth of the Lord Jesus Christ was the result of a mighty miracle. His mother was a young unmarried woman of excellent character. She was a virgin." نسخة محفوظة 31 يناير 2019 على موقع واي باك مشين.
  8. ^ Tennant, H. Christ in the Old Testament نسخة محفوظة 30 August 2010 على موقع واي باك مشين., CMPA, Birmingham 1996
  9. ^ Joseph Priestley An history of early opinions concerning Jesus Christ 1786 Vol3 Chapter 3 "Of the Conduct of our Saviour himself, with respect to his own supposed Pre-existence and Divinity." p64: "He never told his disciples that he had pre-existed, or that he had had any thing to do before he came into the world ; much less that he had made the world" The Corruptions of Christianity
  10. ^ Sanford, Charles B. The religious life of Thomas Jefferson 1984 p112 "The question of the virgin birth occupied a good part of Priestley's book The Corruptions of Christianity [1782]. .. The account of the miraculous birth of Christ is only found in the first chapters of Matthew and Luke. Priestley suggested that the earliest copies of Matthew and Luke did not have these introductions, writings of Marcion of the second century as evidence"
  11. ^ Priestley, J., 1791c [1783], A General View of the Arguments for the Unity of God; and against the Divinity and Pre-Existence of Christ; from Reason, from the Scriptures, and from History, in Tracts. Printed and Published by the Unitarian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge and the Practice of Virtue. Vol. 1, London: The Unitarian Society, pp. 179–214. [Reprint: in Three Tracts by Joseph Priestley, Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu.com, 2007.]
  12. ^ Smith, Gary Scott Faith and the presidency: from George Washington to George W. Bush 2006 p463 "In his letter to Priestley, Jefferson identified four possible views of Christ's person: "a member of the God-head," "a being of eternal pre-existence," "a man divinely inspired," "the Herald of truths reformatory of the religions of mankind.". He argued that all views of Jesus should be tolerated but clearly preferred the latter." (Smith truncates the original final sentence: "the religions of mankind [in general, but more immediately of that of his countrymen]")
  13. ^ Steven Waldman Founding faith: providence, politics, and the birth of religious freedom in America 2008 p72 "In 1819, he started over and created a new version called 'The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth,' often referred to now as the Jefferson Bible. In Jefferson's version, Jesus was not divine. The virgin birth — gone."
  14. ^ Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, Vol. I (1817), chapter 10: "For I was at that time and long after... yet a zealous Unitarian in religion; more accurately, I was a Psilanthropist, one of those who believe our Lord to have been the real son of Joseph" Later, however, Coleridge changed his mind (chapter 24): "But this I have said, and shall continue to say: that if the doctrines, the sum of which I believe to constitute the truth in Christ, be Christianity, then Unitarianism is not, and vice versa"
  15. أ ب ت ث Robert Paul Lightner, Handbook of Evangelical Theology: A historical, Biblical, and contemporary survey and review, Kregel Publications, 1995, (ردمك 0-8254-3145-X), pp. 74–75.
  16. ^ Rudolf Bultmann, "New Testament and Mythology," in Craig A. Evans (ed), The Historical Jesus: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies, Volume 1, Routledge, 2004, (ردمك 0-415-32751-2), p. 328. نسخة محفوظة 5 أكتوبر 2017 على موقع واي باك مشين.

بيبلوجرافيا[عدل]

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  • جيمس دان, Christology in the Making, London: SCM Press. 1989.
  • Ferguson, Everett. Backgrounds in Early Christianity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing. 1993.
  • Greene, Colin J. D. Christology in Cultural Perspective: Marking Out the Horizons. Grand Rapids: InterVarsity Press. Eerdmans Publishing. 2003.
  • روجر هايت. Jesus Symbol of God. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. 1999.
  • Holt, Bradley P. Thirsty for God: A Brief History of Christian Spirituality. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 2005.
  • Letham, Robert. The Work of Christ. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press. 1993.
  • Macleod, Donald. The Person of Christ. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press. 1998.
  • ليستر ماكغراث. Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 1998.
  • Macquarrie, J.. Jesus Christ in Modern Thought. London: SCM Press. 1990.
  • Norris, Richard A. Jr. The Christological Controversy. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 1980.
  • O'Collins, Gerald. Salvation for All: God's Other Peoples. Oxford: دار نشر جامعة أكسفورد. 2008.
  • قالب:Long dash Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus. Oxford: دار نشر جامعة أكسفورد. 2009.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. Development of Christian Doctrine: Some Historical Prolegomena. London: Yale University Press. 1969.
  • قالب:Long dash The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100–600). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1971.
  • Tyson, John R. Invitation to Christian Spirituality: An Ecumenical Anthology. New York: Oxford University Press. 1999.
  • Wilson, R. Mcl. Gnosis and the New Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 1968.
  • Witherington, Ben III. The Jesus Quest: The Third Search for the Jew of Nazareth. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press. 1995.