ويكيبيديا:قوالب تحديد المصادر

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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Below are examples of how to use templates to cite books, encyclopedias, journals, theses, papers, websites, comic strips, videos, and editorial comics. انظر أيضا تصنيف:قوالب مراجع.

  • For full description of the template — click the template name
  • Required field(s) are indicated in bold
  • Copy and paste the text under "common usage" to use the template.
  • Following each example is the resulting article text.

The use of Citation templates is not required by WP:CITE and is neither encouraged nor discouraged by any other Wikipedia citation guidelines. They may be used at the discretion of individual editors, subject to agreement with the other editors on the article. Some editors find them helpful, while other editors find them annoying, particularly when used inline in the text. Because they are optional, editors should not change articles from one style to the other without consensus.


مصدر template
(required)
common usage Example 1
article text
Example 2
article text
كتب {{مرجع كتاب}}
title
{{cite book
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | location = 
  | pages = 
  | url = 
  | doi = 
  | id =  }}
{{cite book
  | last = Mumford
  | first = David
  | authorlink = David Mumford
  | title = The Red Book of Vari…
  | publisher = [[Springer]]
  | date = 1999
  | pages = 198-203
  | doi = 10.1007/b62130
  | id = ISBN 3-540-63293-X }}

Mumford، David. The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes. سبرنجر. صفحات 198–203. 

{{cite book 
  | last = Cordell 
  | first = Bruce R. 
  | coauthors = Jeff Grubb, David Yu 
  | title = [[Manual of the Planes]] 
  | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]] 
  | date = 2001 
  | pages = pp. 198-203
  | month = September 
  | id = ISBN 0-7869-1850-8 }}

Cordell، Bruce R.؛ Jeff Grubb, David Yu. Manual of the Planes. Wizards of the Coast. صفحات pp. 198–203. 

conference
 report
 or paper
{{cite conference}}
title
booktitle
{{cite conference
  | first = 
  | last = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | booktitle = 
  | pages = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | location = 
  | url = 
  | doi = 
  | id = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite conference
  | first = M.
  | last = Turk 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = Pentland, A.
  | title = Face recognition usi…
  | booktitle = Proc IEEE Confer…
  | pages = 586–591
  | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Pentland, A.(1991). "Face recognition using eigenfaces".Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 586–591. 

{{cite conference
  | last = Evans
  | first = N. R.
  | coauthors = Schaefer, G; Bond, H.; Bon…
  | title = Direct detection of the close…
  | booktitle = American Astronomical Soci…
  | date = [[2006-01-09]]
  | url = http://www.aas.org/…30.htm
  | accessdate = 2006-07-02 }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Bono, G.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D.(2006-01-09). "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope".American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting. Retrieved on 2006-07-02. 

encyclopedia {{cite encyclopedia}}
Title
encyclopedia
{{cite encyclopedia
  | title = 
  | encyclopedia =
  | volume =
  | pages = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | id = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite encyclopedia
  | title = Kirkegaard, Ole Lund
  | encyclopedia = Grote Winkler…
  | volume = 9
  | publisher = [[Winkler Prins]]
  | date = [[1882]] }}

"Kirkegaard, Ole Lund". Grote Winkler Prins. 9. Winkler Prins. 1882.

{{cite encyclopedia
  | last = Kramer
  | first = Martin
  | authorlink = Martin Kramer
  | title = Bernard Lewis
  | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Histori…
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | location = London
  | date = 1999
  | url = http://www.geocities.com/…wis.htm
  | accessdate = 2006-05-23 }}

Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–720. http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm. Retrieved 2006-05-23.

journal {{cite journal}}
Title
{{cite journal
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | journal = 
  | volume = 
  | issue = 
  | pages = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | doi = 
  | id = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite journal
  | authorlink = Stephen Breyer
  | title = Copyright: A Rejoin…
  | journal = UCLA Law Review
  | volume = 20
  | pages = 75–83
  | date = October 1972
  | publisher = UCLA School of…}}

Breyer، Stephen (October 1972). "Copyright: A Rejoinder". UCLA Law Review (UCLA School of Law) 20: 75–83. 

{{cite journal
  | last = Bailey
  | first = David H.
  | authorlink = David H. Bailey
  | coauthors = [[Peter Borwein|Borwein, P…
  | title = The Quest for Pi
  | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
  | volume = 19 
  | issue = 1
  | pages = 50–57
  | date = [[1999-06-25]]
  | publisher = Springer
  | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/…/pi-quest.pdf
  | format = [[PDF]]
  | id = ISSN: 0343-6993
  | accessdate = 2006-06-29 }}

Bailey، David H.؛ Borwein, Peter B., and Borwein, Jonathan M. (1999-06-25). "The Quest for Pi" (PDF). Mathematical Intelligencer (Springer) 19 (1): 50–57. ISSN: 0343-6993. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2006-06-29. 

news {{cite news}}
Title
{{cite news 
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | work = 
  | pages = 
  | language = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite news 
  | last = McGee
  | first = Maggie
  | title = Seabed 'scarred' by…
  | pages = 12–27
  | publisher = CNN 
  | date = [[2005-02-10]]
  | url = http://www.cnn.com/200…
  | accessdate = 2006-07-03 }}

McGee، Maggie (2005-02-10). "Seabed 'scarred' by tsunami quake". CNN. صفحات 12–27. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2006-07-03. 

{{cite news 
  | last = Andersen 
  | first = David 
  | coauthors = Witter, Lameen 
  | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Ta…
  | publisher = Marine Corps News
  | date = [[2006-02-17]]
  | url = http://www.military.com/Careers/…
  | accessdate = 2006-06-02 }}

Andersen، David؛ Witter, Lameen (2006-02-17). "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success". Marine Corps News. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2006-06-02. 

newsgroup
 posting
DO NOT
USE TO
VERIFY
{{cite newsgroup}}
Title
{{cite newsgroup 
  | title = 
  | author = 
  | date = 
  | newsgroup = 
  | id = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite newsgroup 
  | author = Gary S. Terhune
  | title = Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del fu…
  | date = [[2004-01-11]]
  | newsgroup = microsoft.public…
  | id = uAIVMjC2DHA.2336@TK2MSF…
  | url = http://groups.google.c…
  | accessdate = 2006-05-16 }}

Gary S. Terhune(2004-01-11)."Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del function on W98, 2nd".microsoft.public.win98.gen_discussion.(Web link).Retrieved on 2006-05-16.

{{cite newsgroup 
  | title = How can helping "Kids in Afric…
  | author = Trodel
  | date = [[2006-06-10]]
  | newsgroup= humanities.philosophy.objec…
  | id = 1149950890.204481.35810@h76g2000…
  | url = http://groups.google.com/group/…
  | accessdate = 2006-07-03 }}

Trodel(2006-06-10)."How can helping "Kids in Africa" be in my self interest".humanities.philosophy.objectivism.(Web link).Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

paper
thesis
dissertation
{{cite paper}}
Title
{{cite paper
  | author = 
  | title = 
  | version = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | format = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite paper
  | author = Ziman, J.M., F.R.S.
  | title = Public Knowledge: An…
  | date = 1968
  | url =http://info.med.yale.edu
  | format = [[PDF]]
  | accessdate = 2006-07-03 }}

Ziman, J.M., F.R.S.(1968)."Public Knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science"(PDF). Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

{{cite paper
  | author = Williamson, John and Zagha, R…
  | title = From the Hindu Rate of Growth…
  | version = Working Paper No 144
  | publisher = Center for Research on eco…
  | date = 2002 
  | url = http://scid.stanford.edu/…144.pdf
  | format = [[PDF]]
  | accessdate = 2006-07-03 }}

Williamson, John and Zagha, Roberto(2002)."From the Hindu Rate of Growth to the Hindu Rate of Reform"(PDF). Working Paper No. 144.Center for research on economic development and policy reform.Retrieved on 2006-07-03.

press release {{cite press release}}
Title
{{cite press release
  | title = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite press release
  | title = Nature compares Wik…
  | publisher = The Wikimedia F…
  | date = [[2005-12-15]]
  | url = http://en.wikipedia.or…
  | accessdate = 2006-07-03}}

"Nature compares Wikipedia and Britannica" (بيان إعلامي). The Wikimedia Foundation. 2005-12-15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Press_releases/Nature_compares_Wikipedia_and_Britannica. Retrieved 2006-07-03.

{{cite press release
  | title = HFPA Announces Timetable for 6…
  | publisher = [[Hollywood Foreign Press…]]
  | date = [[2006-05-25]]
  | url = http://www.hfpa.org/news/id/32
  | accessdate = 2006-06-13 }}

"HFPA Announces Timetable for 64th Annual Golden Globe Awards" (بيان إعلامي). Hollywood Foreign Press Association. 2006-05-25. http://www.hfpa.org/news/id/32. Retrieved 2006-06-13.

video {{cite video}}
people
title
{{cite video
  | people = 
  | title = 
  | medium = 
  | publisher = 
  | location = 
  | date =  }}
{{cite video
  | people = Al-Issawi, Omar(Dir…
  | title = [http…Harab libnan]
  | medium = TV-Series
  | publisher = Al-Issawi, Omar
  | location = Lebanon 
  | date = 2001 }}

Al-Issawi, Omar (Director) (2001). Harab libnan (TV-Series). Lebanon: Al-Issawi, Omar. 

{{cite video
  | people = Dick Cavett
  | title = The Dick Cavett Show — Rock Ic…
  | medium = DVD
  | publisher = Shout Factory
  | date = 2005 }}

Dick Cavett (2005). The Dick Cavett Show — Rock Icons (1969) (DVD). Shout Factory. 

website {{cite web}}
Title
{{cite web
  | last = 
  | first = 
  | authorlink = 
  | coauthors = 
  | title = 
  | work = 
  | publisher = 
  | date = 
  | url = 
  | format = 
  | doi = 
  | accessdate =  }}
{{cite web
  | last = Spiegel
  | first = Rachel
  | title = Research: Thalidomide 
  | url=http://science-education…
  | accessdate = 2006-04-30 }}

Spiegel، Rachel. "Research in the News: Thalidomide". اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2006-04-30. 

{{cite web
  | last = Hansen
  | first = James E.
  | authorlink = James Hansen 
  | coauthors = R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo
  | title = GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation
  | work = 
  | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for Space Studies|NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies]]
  | date = [[2005-12-15]]
  | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/2005/
  | format =
  | doi = 
  | accessdate = 2006-09-28 }}

Hansen، James E.؛ R. Ruedy, M. Sato, and K. Lo (2005-12-15). "GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation". NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 2006-09-28.  Note: blank fields (format & doi above) will not affect the result unless the field is required.

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