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مشاريع مملوكة من قبل الدولة

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
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بعض المعلومات الواردة هنا لم تدقق وقد لا تكون موثوقة بما يكفي، وتحتاج إلى اهتمام من قبل خبير أو مختص. فضلًا ساعد بتدقيق المعلومات ودعمها بالمصادر اللازمة. (أبريل 2019)
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هذه المقالة بها ترجمة آلية يجب تحسينها أو إزالتها لأنها تخالف سياسات ويكيبيديا. (ديسمبر 2016)

مشاريع مملوكة من قبل الدولة (بالإنجليزية: state-owned enterprise (SOE)) أو التي تسمى بعدة تسميات بالإنجليزية، والتي تعني الشركات التي تمولها الحكومة أو السلطات العامة بشكل كلي أو بنصف النسبة المقدرة ب51%.

القطاع الاقتصادي[عدل]

غالبا ما تكون الشركات هذه في قطاع ال naturla monopoly وضمن اهداف الحكومة الاستراتيجية. التأميم ايضا يساعد على نشؤ الشركات المملوكة للحكومة مثل قناة السويس في مصر

بلجيكا[عدل]

  • National Railway Company of Belgium
  • Infrabel
  • RTBF
  • Bpost
  • Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie
  • Belgacom (53.3%)
  • Belgischer Rundfunk
  • Fluxys (2.1%)
  • SFPI-FPIM
  • Elia System Operator (5.37%)
  • Ethias (25%)
  • Belfius (100%)
  • Brussels Airport (25%)

الملخص[عدل]

Government corporations by field and by country
Postal Railways الصيدلة Gambling Alcohol الرعاية الصحية الجامعات الهواتف Broadcasting النفط والغاز الطاقة الماء الطيرات الطرق
الارجنتين mix (Correo Argentino) Yes (Administración de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias) mix (LIFSE) yes (Lotería Nacional) mix (INV) mix mix (public universities) no mix (TV Pública Digital, LRA Radio Nacional, Télam) yes (YPF) mix (Enarsa, CNEA) mix mix (EZE, CRD, BHI, etc.) mix
أستراليا Yes (Australia Post) monopoly on postal delivery of letters to 250g mix (Australian Rail Track Corporation; varies by State) mix (PBS funding only; no retail competition) mix (varies by State) no mix (Medicare) mix mix (NBN Co wholesale only; no retail competition) mix (ABC, SBS) no mix (varies by State) mix (varies by State) mix (varies by State) mix (varies by State)
بلجيكا Yes (Bpost) yes (NMBS/SNCB) no mix (Nationale Loterij/Lotterie Nationale) no mix mix mix (Belgacom) mix (VRT, RTBF, BRF) no mix mix yes
البرازيل Yes (Correios) mix (pt:VALEC, pt:CBTU, Trensurb) no yes (Caixa Econômica Federal) mix (إيثانول only) mix (SUS) mix (public universities) mix (Telebras) mix (Agência Brasil) mix (بتروبراز) mix (Eletrobras) mix (varies by State) mix (Infraero) no
كندا Yes (Canada Post) mix (فيا رايل كندا), passenger rail; freight is private. no varies by province varies by province (LCBO, SAQ, SLGA) yes (Medicare) 95% publicly governed charitable trusts (public universities) varies by province (Sasktel) mix (CBC) private enterprise favored varies by province (Hydro-Québec, BC Hydro, Hydro One, Manitoba Hydro, Nalcor, SaskPower) varies by province publicly governed by local authority in trust; see above Except 407 ETR
تشيلي Yes

(Correos de Chile)

yes (EFE) no mix no yes

(FONASA)

mix (public universities)
no mix

(TVN)

yes (ENAP) no no mix

(SCL, CCP, IPC, etc.)

mix
كولومبيا Yes (4-72) no no mix (Etesa) [a] varies by department Nueva EPS mix (جامعة كولومبيا الوطنية), plus various local ones mix (Telefónica Telecom) (Empresas Públicas de Medellín) mix (Radio Televisión Nacional de Colombia) mix (Ecopetrol) (ISA Emgesa) mix
Czech Republic Yes (Česká pošta) yes (České dráhy) no no no yes (VZP) mix no mix (Česká televize, Český rozhlas) no majority-held ČEZ Group
Denmark Yes (Post Danmark) mix (Banedanmark, DSB) no yes (Danske Spil) no mix mix (قائمة الجامعات في الدنمارك; vast majority of all universities) mix mix (DR) mix (Energinet.dk) mix (DONG Energy) municipalities mix (Københavns Lufthavne) yes (Helsingørmotorvejen)
فنلندا De facto (Itella) de facto (VR) no yes (Veikkaus, RAY, Fintoto) yes (Alko) mix (بلديات فنلندا) mix (All universities are state owned, few private ammattikorkeakoulu/yrkeshögskola, which is variously translated as polytechnic or as a University of Applied Sciences) mix (تلياسونيرا) mix (YLE) de facto (Neste) mix (Fortum) yes (municipal) yes (Finavia) mix (Destia)
فرنسا Yes

(La Poste)

yes (SNCF) no mix

(Française Des Jeux)

no mix (CMU) mix (EPSCP) mix (أورنج) mix (تلفزيون فرنسا) no mix (كهرباء فرنسا, CEA) mix mix mix
ألمانيا Mix

(Deutsche Post)

mix (DB) no no no mix (BG) mix mix (DTAG) mix (ARD, ZDF, Deutschlandradio) no mix (Stadtwerke Köln) mix yes (دولة) yes (by federal and state governments)
اليونان De facto

(ELTA)

de facto (OSE, TrainOSE) no mix

(OPAP)

no mix (ESY) mix (All institutions titled as Universities are state owned whereas there are numerous private colleges) mix (OTE) mix (NERIT) mix (ELPE) mix (DEI) mix
Iceland De facto (Íslandspóstur) no railways in Iceland no no gambling in Iceland yes (ÁTVR) mix mix no mix (RÚV) no oil industry in Iceland mix (Landsvirkjun)
India Yes (India Post) yes (سكك الحديد الهندية) mix (IDPL) no mix, varies by state (BEVCO, TASMAC) mix mix mix (BSNL) mix (محطة تلفزيون دوردارشان, إذاعة كل الهند) mix (ONGC), مؤسسة النفط الهندي yes mix mix (Airports Authority of India) mix
Indonesia Yes (Pos Indonesia) de facto (PT Kereta Api) mix (Kimia Farma, etc.) no no mix mix (public universities) mix (Telkom Indonesia) mix (TVRI and RRI) mix (Pertamina and PGN) yes (Perusahaan Listrik Negara) mix mix (Angkasa Pura) mix (Jasa Marga)
Republic of Ireland Yes (An Post) yes (Iarnród Éireann) no mix National Lottery, (Prize Bond, HRI, BnaC) no mix (Health Service Executive) mix no mix (RTE, Teilifís na Gaeilge) mix (Ervia) mix (ESB, BMN), mix (Irish Water) mix (Dublin Airport Authority, etc.) de facto (National Roads Authority)
Israel Yes (Do'ar Yisrael) de facto (خطوط السكك الحديدية الإسرائيلية) no yes (Mifal HaPayis) yes mix yes mix mix (IBA, IETV, صوت إسرائيل etc.) mix (Oil Refineries) mix (IEC) de facto (Mekorot) yes (IAA) mix (Netivei Israel)
Italy De facto (Poste italiane) mix (FS) no yes (AAMS) no mix (SSN) mix no mix (RAI) mix (Eni) mix (Enel) mix mix (AOT, REG, ALL etc.) mix (ANAS)
Japan Mix

(JapanPost)

mix (JR) no yes (JRA etc.) no mix (NHI) mix mix (NTT) mix (NHK) no no yes mix (NRT, مطار طوكيو هانيدا الدولي, ITM, etc.)
Republic of Korea De facto

(Korea Post)

de facto

(Korea Railroad Corporation)

no yes (Kangwon Land Inc.) no de facto

(NHIS)

mix de facto

(KT Corporation)

mix

(KBS, EBS)

de facto

(KNOC, KOGAS)

de facto

(KEPCO)

de facto

(K-WATER)

yes

(KAC, ICN)

mix

(Korea Expressway Corporation)

Malaysia Yes (Pos Malaysia) de facto (KTMB, SSR, Prasarana) mix no no mix mix (التعليم في ماليزيا) mix (Telekom Malaysia) mix (RTM) yes (Petronas) mix (Tenaga Nasional, Sarawak Energy) mix mix (Malaysia Airports) de facto (Malaysian Federal Roads System, Malaysian State Roads system)
Mexico Mix (Servicio Postal Mexicano) mix (Ferrocarril Transistmico) mix (e.g. in public hospitals) no no mix (Mexican Social Security Institute, Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers) mix (الجامعة الوطنية المستقلة في المكسيك, National Polytechnic Institute and state universities among others) no mix (Once TV México, Notimex, XEIMT-TV) yes (Pemex) yes (electricity: CFE) mix

(varies by state/municipality)

mix (Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares, مطار بينيتو خواريز الدولي) mix (Caminos y Puentes Federales)
Netherlands No mix (Nederlandse Spoorwegen),[b] passenger rail. Freight is private no yes

(Holland Casino)

no mix mix(Dutch universities) except Nyenrode Business University no mix (Netherlands Public Broadcasting) no no yes
New Zealand Yes (NZ Post) yes (KiwiRail) no yes (New Zealand Lottery Commission) no mix (District health boards) yes no mix (TVNZ) no mix (Genesis Energy, Meridian Energy, Mighty River Power, Solid Energy, Transpower New Zealand Limited) yes mix yes (State Highway network)
Norway Yes (Posten Norge) yes (NSB) no yes (Norsk Tipping) yes (Vinmonopolet) yes, via state monopoly mix mix (تيلينور) mix (NRK) mix (ستات أويل, Petoro) yes (Statkraft, and various municipally owned companies) mix mix (Avinor)
Peru Yes (Serpost) no no no no mix (EsSalud) yes (local ones, including (جامعة سان ماركوس الوطنية) no yes (TV Peru) yes (Petroperú) mix yes (only in local water supply and sewage services, including Sedapal)
Philippines Yes (PhilPost) yes (PNR) no yes (PAGCOR) no yes yes (UP) no mix (PTV) mix (PNOC) mix (NAPOCOR) mix
Portugal no mix (Comboios de Portugal) no no no mix mix no mix (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal) no no mix (Águas de Portugal) no mix
Russia Yes (Russian Post) de facto (Russian Railways) no mix (Gosloto, etc.) no mix (Mandatory Medical Insurance) mix mix (Rostelecom, TransTelekom) mix (VGTRK, 1TV, TVC, Public Television, Zvezda, RT, صوت روسيا via monopolies Russian Satellite Communications Company and RTRS) mix (Rosneft, Gazprom Neft via monopoly Transneft) mix (Inter RAO, Rosenergoatom, RusHydro, غازبروم via monopoly Russian Grids) mix mix de facto (federal highways, Rosavtodor, Avtodor)
Singapore Yes (SingPost) mix (SMRT) mix yes (Singapore Pools) mix mix (SingHealth) mix (NUS, NTU, SIT, SUTD) yes (SingTel) yes (MediaCorp) yes (SNOC) mix (Temasek) mix (PUB) yes yes
Spain Yes (Correos) mix (FEVE, Renfe Operadora, Adif) no mix (Loterías y Apuestas del Estado) no mix (Spanish National Health System) mix (public universities) mix mix (EFE, RTVE) mix (Enagas) mix (Red Electrica de España) mix mix (Aena) mix
Sweden De facto (Posten AB) de facto (SJ, Green Cargo) mix (أبوتكت) yes (Svenska Spel) yes (Systembolaget) mix mix (All state-owned except 3 universities Chalmers University of Technology (owned by government,faculty,student union run as a private entity), Stockholm School of Economics (22% from state funds) and Jönköping University Foundation mix (تلياسونيرا) mix (SVT) no de facto (Vattenfall, Svenska Kraftnät) mix mix (Swedavia) yes (Svevia)
Switzerland Yes (Swiss Post) yes (SBB/CFF/FFS) mix (نوفارتس, هوفمان-لا روش etc.) no no mix mix mix (سويسكوم) mix (SRG SSR) no mix mix mix
Thailand Yes (Post) yes (State Rail) yes (GPO) yes (State Lotto) Alcohol Permit mix (MOPH) mix (public universities) mix (Telecom) mix (MCOT) mix (PTT) yes (EGAT) yes yes
Turkey Yes (PTT) yes (TCDD) no yes (Millî Piyango İdaresi) no mix mix (state universities) no mix (TRT) mix (TPAO) mix mix (State Hydraulic Works) mix
United Arab Emirates Yes (Emirates Post) no mix no Liquor permit mix (GCC, ضمان (شركة تأمين صحي في الامارات)) mix yes (TRA) yes (DMI) mix (ENOC, شركة بترول أبوظبي الوطنية, etc.) mix (TAQA) yes mix
Ukraine Yes (Ukrposhta) Yes (Ukrainian Railways) no yes no mix mix no mix mix yes yes mix yes
United Kingdom Mix (Royal Mail, Post Office Ltd) mix

(Northern Ireland Railways, East Coast) (Network Rail)[c]

no mix (Premium Bond) no mix (NHS) mix (publicly funded universities) no mix (BBC, Channel Four, S4C) no no Mix

(Scottish Water, Northern Ireland Water)

mix
United States Yes (USPS) mix (أمتراك), passenger rail; freight is private no mix (State Lotteries) varies by state (ABC store states) mix (Medicare, Medicaid, Military Health System) mix (U.S. military service academies, public universities) no mix (CPB, BBG, VOA) no mix (TVA) mix mix mix (U.S. Routes, the Interstate)
Uruguay Yes (Correo Uruguayo) yes (AFE) no mix (Casinos del Estado) no mix mix (UdelaR) mix (ANTEL) mix (SODRE) mix (ANCAP) mix (UTE) yes (OSE) mix
Venezuela Yes (Ipostel) yes (IFE) mix mix mix mix (Mission Barrio Adentro) mix (SCV, ULA), UIV, etc. yes (CANTV) mix (TVes, ANTV, VTV) yes (PDVSA) mix (CVG) yes
Vietnam Yes (VNPT) yes (Vietnam Railways) mix no gambling in Vietnam yes mix mix (public universities) mix (VNPT, Viettel) de facto (VTV, VTC, Voice of Vietnam) yes (Petrovietnam, Petrolimex) yes (EVN) mix yes (Airports Corporation)
Postal Railways Pharmacy Gambling Alcohol Health care Universities Telephone Broadcasting Oil & Gas Energy Water Airports Highways
  1. ^ Etesa is a company wholly owned by the Colombian government and holds the exclusive right to gambling activities.
  2. ^ Nederlandse Spoorwegen is a company wholly owned by the هولنديون government.
  3. ^ Network Rail is a private company whose debts are guaranteed by the حكومة المملكة المتحدة, which has caused controversy over whether it is state owned or not.

هوامش[عدل]

المصادر[عدل]

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هذه بذرة مقالة عن علم الاقتصاد أو موضوع متعلق به بحاجة للتوسيع. شارك في تحريرها.