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اعتماد جسدي

من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
اذهب إلى التنقل اذهب إلى البحث
فهرس الإدمان والاعتمادية[1][2][3][4]

يشير الاعتماد الجسدي Physical dependence إلى الحالة الناتجة عن الاستخدام المزمن للدواء، مما يؤدي إلى تحمل المادة المعتمد عليها، كما يؤدي إلى ظهور الأعراض الجسدية السلبية عند التوقف المفاجئ عن استخدام المادة أو تخفيف الجرعة.[5][6][7] ويختلف الاعتماد الجسدي عن الإدمان، فالكافيين مثلا لا يوفي شروط الإدمان ولكنه يوفي شروط الاعتماد الجسدي.

روابط خارجية[عدل]

مراجع[عدل]

  1. ^ Malenka RC، Nestler EJ، Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A، Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (الطبعة 2nd). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. صفحات 364–375. ISBN 9780071481274. 
  2. ^ Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory for addiction". Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 15 (4): 431–443. PMC 3898681Freely accessible. PMID 24459410. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an animal's sensitivity to drug as well as natural rewards and promotes drug self-administration, presumably through a process of positive reinforcement ... Another ΔFosB target is cFos: as ΔFosB accumulates with repeated drug exposure it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB is selectively induced in the chronic drug-treated state.41. ... Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict. 
  3. ^ "Glossary of Terms". Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. اطلع عليه بتاريخ 09 فبراير 2015. 
  4. ^ Volkow ND، Koob GF، McLellan AT (January 2016). "Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction". N. Engl. J. Med. 374 (4): 363–371. PMID 26816013. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1511480. Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. Depending on the level of severity, this disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe.
    Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking the drug. In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder.
     
  5. ^ [1]نسخة محفوظة May 19, 2013, على موقع واي باك مشين.
  6. ^ Cohen D، Leo J، Stanton T، وآخرون. (2002). "A boy who stops taking stimulants for "ADHD": commentaries on a Pediatrics case study". Ethical Hum Sci Serv. 4 (3): 189–209. PMID 15278983. 
  7. ^ Kozell L، Belknap JK، Hofstetter JR، Mayeda A، Buck KJ (July 2008). "Mapping a locus for alcohol physical dependence and associated withdrawal to a 1.1 Mb interval of mouse chromosome 1 syntenic with human chromosome 1q23.2-23.3". Genes, Brain and Behavior. 7 (5): 560–7. PMID 18363856. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2008.00391.x. 
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